Volitional media multitasking: awareness of performance costs and modulation of media multitasking as a function of task demand.

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2018-07-17

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Abstract

In two experiments, we sought to determine whether (a) people are aware of the frequently observed performance costs associated with engaging in media multitasking (Experiment 1), and (b) if so, whether they modulate the extent to which they engage in multitasking as a function of task demand (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants completed a high-demand task (2-back) both independently and while a video was simultaneously presented. To determine whether people were sensitive to the impact that the concurrent video had on primary-task performance, subjective estimates of performance were collected following both trial types (No-Video vs. Video trials), as were explicit beliefs about the influence of the video on performance. In Experiment 2, we modified our paradigm by allowing participants to turn the video on and off at their discretion, and had them complete either a high-demand task (2-back) or a low-demand task (0-back). Findings from Experiment 1 indicated that people are sensitive to the magnitude of the decrement that media multitasking has on primary-task performance. In addition, findings from Experiment 2 indicated that people modulate the extent to which they engage in media multitasking in accordance with the demands of their primary task. In particular, participants completing the high-demand task were more likely to turn off the optional video stream compared to those completing the low-demand task. The results suggest that people media multitask in a strategic manner by balancing considerations of task performance with other potential concerns.

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Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1007/s00426-018-1056-x

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Ralph, Brandon CW, Paul Seli, Kristin E Wilson and Daniel Smilek (2018). Volitional media multitasking: awareness of performance costs and modulation of media multitasking as a function of task demand. Psychological research. pp. 1–20. 10.1007/s00426-018-1056-x Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/17289.

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Scholars@Duke

Seli

Paul Seli

Assistant Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience

My research is rooted in the exploration and understanding of the intricate tapestry of human consciousness. I am particularly fascinated by its myriad manifestations and the potential for our various conscious states to be harnessed as tools for individual and collective development.

My investigations are organized around four main pillars: creativity, mind wandering, dreaming, and the use of psychedelics. Each of these areas offers a unique lens through which to examine the depth and breadth of human consciousness, providing rich insights into our most elusive cognitive processes.

In the realm of creativity, my investigations delve into the mechanisms of innovative thought, seeking to understand how we can stimulate and cultivate this capacity to bolster productivity, refine problem-solving abilities, and spark novel insights. I’m interested in the conditions and cognitive processes that foster creative breakthroughs, with the goal of mapping the landscape of our creative consciousness.

In the arena of mind wandering, I explore the subtle interplay between directed thought and spontaneous cognition to shed light on the complexities and potential benefits of our minds' natural propensity to wander, and I examine methods with which we might reap the benefits of our untethered minds.

Dreaming is another, related, dimension of consciousness that I explore, with research that aims to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our dream states. By seeking to understand the psychological correlates of dreaming, I aim to uncover how these unique conscious states may serve as catalysts for creativity and problem-solving.

Finally, my research delves into the potentially transformative properties of psychedelics. In this line of work, I aim to dissect the nature of psychedelic-induced states of consciousness to shed light on their implications for cognitive flexibility, creativity, and therapeutic outcomes. My research in this area focuses on deciphering the possible routes by which these substances may broaden our perception and augment our cognitive and creative faculties.

The ultimate goal of my program of research is to reveal the potential hidden within our diverse conscious states so that we can develop methods by which people can enhance their creativity, productivity, and problem-solving abilities. As we advance in our understanding of these states, we find ourselves better equipped to cultivate them in ways that might profoundly enrich our lives. This quest for understanding underscores my commitment to an integrative and humanistic approach to psychology, grounded in rigorous scientific investigation.


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