Introducing the Fourth Wave of the National Congregations Study

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Chaves, M, M Hawkins, A Holleman and J Roso (n.d.). Introducing the Fourth Wave of the National Congregations Study. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 10.1111/jssr.12684 Retrieved from

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Mark Chaves

Anne Firor Scott Distinguished Professor of Sociology

Professor Chaves specializes in the sociology of religion. Most of his research is on the social organization of religion in the United States. Among other projects, he directs the National Congregations Study (NCS), a wide-ranging survey of a nationally representative sample of religious congregations conducted in 1998, 2006-07, 2012, and 2018-19. NCS results have helped us to better understand many aspects of congregational life in the United States. Professor Chaves also directed the National Survey of Religious Leaders in 2019-20. He is the author of American Religion: Contemporary Trends (2nd ed., Princeton, 2017),  Congregations in America (Harvard, 2004), Ordaining Women: Culture and Conflict in Religious Organizations (Harvard, 1997), and many articles.


Anna Holleman

Postdoctoral Associate

Anna Holleman is a Postdoctoral Research Associate affiliated with the Duke University Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research and the Duke University Department of Sociology. Her work centers on religion, health, and inequality. Her current research focuses specifically on the health and well-being of religious leaders, congregational political mobilization, and the shifting nature of the American religious landscape in the contemporary social climate. She pursues these research topics through both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Before receiving her PhD, she received a Master of Divinity degree at Duke Divinity School, and thus she approaches her research with an appreciation for the complexities of religious and congregational life.


Joseph Roso


PHD Student -- Department of Sociology

Currently I am interested in studying religion and religious institutions--specifically how religion shapes culture and political ideology. Previously I studied at Vanderbilt University where I received a Bachelor of Arts in sociology with a minor in Russian.

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