Program Evaluation of Implementation Science Outcomes From an Intervention to Improve Compliance With Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bathing: A Qualitative Study.


Background and objectives

Evaluation of implementation science research is warranted to better understand and determine the success of translating evidence-based infection prevention practices at the bedside. The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate implementation outcomes from the perspectives of nurses and nursing leaders regarding a previously conducted chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing implementation science study among 14 critical care units.


Focus groups and interviews, using semistructured interview questions, were conducted to examine the perceptions of nurses who participated in a CHG bathing implementation science study. A deductive qualitative analysis using Proctor and colleagues' implementation outcomes framework was used. Transcripts were analyzed and categorized using the framework as a predetermined code list to structure the implementation outcomes of acceptability, appropriateness, adoption, feasibility, and sustainability.


A total of 19 nurses and nurse leaders participated in a focus group or interview. Participants noted that both implementation strategies used in the initial study (educational outreach and audit and feedback) were acceptable and appropriate and expressed that the evidence-based CHG bathing practice was feasible to integrate into practice and was being adopted.


The program evaluation identified strengths and opportunities for improvement related to the implementation strategies and evidence-based CHG bathing protocol. Findings can inform future studies that seek to implement CHG bathing protocols in the critical care setting using audit and feedback and educational outreach strategies.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Reynolds, Staci S, Patricia Woltz, Edward Keating, Janice Neff, Jennifer Elliott and Bradi B Granger (2022). Program Evaluation of Implementation Science Outcomes From an Intervention to Improve Compliance With Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bathing: A Qualitative Study. Dimensions of critical care nursing : DCCN, 41(4). pp. 200–208. 10.1097/dcc.0000000000000530 Retrieved from

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Staci Reynolds

Clinical Professor in the School of Nursing

Dr. Staci Reynolds joined Duke in January 2016.  At DUSON, Dr. Reynolds teaches in the ABSN Program (neuroscience nursing) and DNP program (healthcare quality improvement methods). Previously, she clinically served as a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) at DUH within the neuroscience inpatient units and Infection Prevention and Hospital Epidemiology department. In January 2023, Dr. Reynolds was appointed the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Nursing Care Quality.  Before coming to DUSON, she was a neurocritical care nurse and a neuroscience CNS at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital.

Dr. Reynolds received a baccalaureate degree in nursing science from Indiana University (IU) in Indianapolis, Indiana.  She earned a Master’s degree as a Clinical Nurse Specialist at IU in 2011, and completed her PhD at IU in May 2016.  Dr. Reynolds’ dissertation focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines, and her current research interests includes evidence-based practice implementation and quality improvement.


Bradi Bartrug Granger

Research Professor in the School of Nursing

Dr. Bradi Granger is a Research Professor at Duke University School of Nursing, Director of the Duke Heart Center Nursing Research Program, and adjunct faculty at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. She is also a core faculty at the Duke-Margolis Center for Health Policy. Dr. Granger received her doctorate in nursing from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, her MSN from Duke University, and her BSN from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

Dr. Granger has extensive clinical experience in cardiovascular nursing, and her clinical work as a Clinical Nurse Specialist has been dedicated to overcoming barriers to the use and conduct of research in the service setting through the development of pragmatic tools that change the way nurses learn about, apply, and conduct nursing science. She has developed an innovative model for clinical inquiry and research in the hospital setting, which has been adopted in clinical settings across the U.S. and abroad. Dr. Granger is an active member of the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, the American Heart Association, and the European Society for Patient Adherence, Compliance, and Persistence. 

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