Post-operative opioid pain management patterns for patients who receive hip surgery.

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Identifying optimal, post-operative opioid management strategies is a priority of health providers and government agencies. At present, there are no studies we are aware of that have formally investigated opioid prescribing patterns for post-operative non-arthroplasty orthopedic conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement, nor has any study investigated the influence of opioid prescription patterns on health care costs and utilization. We aimed to investigate a subgrouping scheme associated with post-operative opioid prescription strategies and measure the subgroups' direct and indirect health care utilization and costs in individuals undergoing non-arthroplasty orthopedic hip surgery.The study was an observational cohort of routine military clinical practices. We used cluster analysis to characterize pre-operative (12 months) and post-operative (24 months) opioid prescription patterns. Linear mixed effects modeling (with statistical controls for baseline status) identified opioid prescription pattern subgroups and identified subgroup differences in health care utilization and costs.Two distinct clusters were identified representing 1) short-duration, high total days' supply (SD-HD), and 2) long-duration, lesser total days' supply (LD-LD) post-operative prescription patterns. Significantly higher costs and health care utilization for both hip-related and non-hip-related variables were consistently identified in the SD-HD group.Long-term opioid prescription use has been identified as a concern, but our findings demonstrate that LD-LD post-operative opioid management for hip surgery recipients was associated with lower costs and utilization. Whether these management patterns were a reflection of pre-operative health status, impacted pain-related outcomes, or can be replicated in other orthopedic procedures remains a consideration for future studies.NA.





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Cook, Chad E, Daniel I Rhon, Brian D Lewis and Steven Z George (2017). Post-operative opioid pain management patterns for patients who receive hip surgery. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 12(1). 10.1186/s13011-017-0094-5 Retrieved from

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Daniel I. Rhon

Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Brian David Lewis

Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I am an assistant professor in the department of orthopaedics.  My sub-specialty interest is in hip surgery including arthroplasty and non-arthoplasty hip surgery.  This includes the treatment of osteoarthritis, hip dysplasia, hip impingement, labral tears, as well as various tendon disorders around the hip.

The research interests include outcomes research for hip surgeries, hip movement disorders related to hip conditions, and factors influencing opioid use in post-surgical patients.


Steven Zachary George

Laszlo Ormandy Distinguished Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

Dr. George’s primary interest is research involving biopsychosocial models for the prevention and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders.  His long term goals are to 1) improve accuracy for predicting who is going to develop chronic pain; and 2) identify non-pharmacological treatment options that limit the development of chronic pain conditions.  Dr. George is an active member of the American Physical Therapy Association, United States Association of the Study of Pain, and International Association for the Study of Pain. 

Dr. George’s research projects have been supported by the National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Orthopaedic Academy of the American Physical Therapy Association.  Dr. George and his collaborators have authored over 300 peer-reviewed publications in leading medical, orthopaedic surgery, physical therapy, rehabilitation, and pain research journals.  He currently serves as Deputy Editor for Physical Therapy and is an Editorial Board Member for the Journal of Pain. Dr. George has also been involved with clinical practice guideline development for the Academy of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy and the American Psychological Association. 

Dr. George has been recognized with prestigious research awards from the American Physical Therapy Association, American Pain Society, and International Association for the Study of Pain. For example from the American Physical Therapy Association: he was named the  21st John H.P. Maley Lecturer, recognized as a Catherine Worthingham Fellow in 2017, and selected for the Marian Williams Award for Research in Physical Therapy in 2022.    

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