Treatment of Fusarium Infection of the Central Nervous System: A Review of Past Cases to Guide Therapy for the Ongoing 2023 Outbreak in the United States and Mexico.

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Date

2023-08

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Abstract

Introduction

Fusariosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely uncommon. Treatment and outcome data from previously published cases may provide some guidance in light of the ongoing fungal meningitis outbreak in 2023 involving Fusarium spp. in the United States and Mexico.

Methods

We reviewed the published literature describing cases of invasive fusariosis of the (CNS) that included data on patient demographic characteristics, treatment, and outcome.

Results

Twenty-six cases met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 36 years, 55% involved females, 60% had underlying hematologic malignancy, and another 16% were on immunosuppressants. The majority of infections were from Fusarium solani species complex. Overall 72% of patients died. The majority received monotherapy with amphotericin B, although some received voriconazole monotherapy or combination therapy with amphotericin B plus voriconazole with or without adjuvant surgery. Among the survivors, 3 received amphotericin B monotherapy, 2 voriconazole monotherapy, 1 combination therapy of both, and one surgery only.

Conclusion

The overall mortality rate in published cases of fusariosis of the CNS was high, although-unlike during the current outbreak-the preponderance of patients were severely immunocompromised. While historically the majority were treated with amphotericin B monotherapy, some recent patients were treated with voriconazole monotherapy or combination therapy with amphotericin B plus voriconazole. Current guidelines recommend monotherapy with voriconazole or lipid formulations of amphotericin B or combination of both for the treatment of invasive fusariosis, which is in line with the findings from our literature review and should be considered during the ongoing 2023 outbreak.

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Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1007/s11046-023-00790-6

Publication Info

Hoenigl, Martin, Jeffrey D Jenks, Matthias Egger, Marcio Nucci and George R Thompson (2023). Treatment of Fusarium Infection of the Central Nervous System: A Review of Past Cases to Guide Therapy for the Ongoing 2023 Outbreak in the United States and Mexico. Mycopathologia. 10.1007/s11046-023-00790-6 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/29004.

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Jenks

Jeffrey Daniel Jenks

Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine

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