Inflammation controls B lymphopoiesis by regulating chemokine CXCL12 expression.

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Inflammation removes developing and mature lymphocytes from the bone marrow (BM) and induces the appearance of developing B cells in the spleen. BM granulocyte numbers increase after lymphocyte reductions to support a reactive granulocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that inflammation, acting primarily through tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), mobilizes BM lymphocytes. Mobilization reflects a reduced CXCL12 message and protein in BM and changes to the BM environment that prevents homing by cells from naive donors. The effects of TNFalpha are potentiated by interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), which acts primarily to expand the BM granulocyte compartment. Our observations indicate that inflammation induces lymphocyte mobilization by suppressing CXCL12 retention signals in BM, which, in turn, increases the ability of IL-1beta to expand the BM granulocyte compartment. Consistent with this idea, lymphocyte mobilization and a modest expansion of BM granulocyte numbers follow injections of pertussis toxin. We propose that TNFalpha and IL-1beta transiently specialize the BM to support acute granulocytic responses and consequently promote extramedullary lymphopoiesis.





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Ueda, Yoshihiro, Kaiyong Yang, Sandra J Foster, Motonari Kondo and Garnett Kelsoe (2004). Inflammation controls B lymphopoiesis by regulating chemokine CXCL12 expression. J Exp Med, 199(1). pp. 47–58. 10.1084/jem.20031104 Retrieved from

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Garnett H. Kelsoe

James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Immunology
  1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes.
    2. The germinal center reaction and mechanisms for clonal selection and self - tolerance. The origins of autoimmunity.
    3. Interaction of innate- and adaptive immunity and the role of inflammation in lymphoid organogenesis.
    4. The role of secondary V(D)J gene rearrangment in lymphocyte development and malignancies.
    5. Mathematical modeling of immune responses, DNA motifs, collaborations in bioinformatics.
    6. Humoral immunity to influenza and HIV-1.

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