Vaginal Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Primary Cervical Cancer Screening Tool in a Haitian Population.


BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as primary cervical cancer screening has not been studied in Caribbean women. We tested vaginal self-collection versus physician cervical sampling in a population of Haitian women. METHODS: Participants were screened for high-risk HPV with self-performed vaginal and clinician-collected cervical samples using Hybrid Capture 2 assays (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD). Women positive by either method then underwent colposcopy with biopsy of all visible lesions. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each sample method compared with biopsy results, with κ statistics performed for agreement. McNemar tests were performed for differences in sensitivity at ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-I and ≥CIN-II. RESULTS: Of 1845 women screened, 446 (24.3%) were HPV positive by either method, including 105 (5.7%) only by vaginal swab and 53 (2.9%) only by cervical swab. Vaginal and cervical samples were 91.4% concordant (κ = 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.77], P < 0.001). Overall, 133 HPV-positive women (29.9%) had CIN-I, whereas 32 (7.2%) had ≥CIN-II. The sensitivity of vaginal swabs was similar to cervical swabs for detecting ≥CIN-I (89.1% vs. 87.9%, respectively; P = 0.75) lesions and ≥CIN-II disease (87.5% vs. 96.9%, P = 0.18). Eighteen of 19 cases of CIN-III and invasive cancer were found by both methods. CONCLUSIONS: Human papillomavirus screening via self-collected vaginal swabs or physician-collected cervical swabs are feasible options in this Haitian population. The agreement between cervical and vaginal samples was high, suggesting that vaginal sample-only algorithms for screening could be effective for improving screening rates in this underscreened population.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Boggan, Joel C, David K Walmer, Gregory Henderson, Nahida Chakhtoura, Schatzi H McCarthy, Harry J Beauvais and Jennifer S Smith (2015). Vaginal Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Primary Cervical Cancer Screening Tool in a Haitian Population. Sex Transm Dis, 42(11). pp. 655–659. 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000345 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Joel Boggan

Associate Professor of Medicine

I am a hospital medicine physician interested in quality improvement, patient safety, and medical education across the UME, GME, and CME environments. My current QI and research projects include work on readmissions, inpatient ORYX and patient experience measures, clinical documentation improvement, medication reconciliation, and appropriate utilization of inpatient resources. Alongside this work, I serve as the lead mentor for our Durham VA Chief Resident in Quality and Safety within the Department of Medicine and the Program Director for the Duke University Hospital CRQS.

As Associate Program Director for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety in the Duke Internal Medicine Residency Program, I oversee QI and safety education and projects for our residents and help co-lead our Residency Patient Safety and Quality Council. Additionally, I supervise housestaff and students on our general medicine wards, precept housestaff evidence-based medicine resident reports, and serve as a small group leader for our second-year medical student Clinical Skills Course. Finally, I lead our Innovation Sciences committee as part of the ongoing School of Medicine Curriculum Innovation Initiative.

David Keith Walmer

Adjunct Professor of Global Health

My areas of interest include
women's health in Haiti
- cervical cancer prevention
- maternal child health
- hypertension 


Preventing cervical cancer in Haiti 
Goal: Develop culturally acceptable and cost effective strategies to prevent cervical cancer
Current strategy:
- primary screen: HPV testing
- treatment thermal ablation of the cervical transformation zone in HPV+ women
Under investigation
- strategies to remove inflammatory cells from cervical cytology
- strategies to speed up and improve AI interpretation of cervical cytology
- strategies to employ drones to deliver test kits and patient samples to deliver health care in gang controlled areas

Improving maternal child health in rural Haiti
- establishing 24/7 access to L&D services in a remote mountain community

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.