Determinants of Patient Satisfaction 2 Years After Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Latent Class Analysis.


Study design

Retrospective review of prospective multicenter database.


To investigate the determinants of patient satisfaction with respect to changes in functional limitations 2 years after spinal deformity surgery.

Summary of background data

For operatively treated adult spine deformity (ASD), patient satisfaction has become an important component of evaluating quality of care.


A total of 430 operative patients with ASD with 2-year follow-up were analyzed. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Scoliosis Research Society 22-item. Latent class analysis was performed to assign individuals to classes based on the changes in pre- and 2-year postoperative functions, assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). An ordered logistic regression was conducted to assess the association of class membership and satisfaction.


Latent class analysis identified four classes. The worsened-condition class (WC: 1.4%) consisted of patients who were likely to experience worsened function, particularly in lifting and pain intensity. The remained-same class (RS: 13.0%) included patients who remained the same, because the majority reported approximately no change in walking, standing, and sitting. The mild-improved class (mild-I: 40.2%) included patients with mildly enhanced conditions, specifically, in standing, social life, and employment. The most-improved class (most-I: 45.3%) included patients with great improvement after surgery mainly in standing, followed by social life and employment. The odds of being satisfied were significantly increased by 3.91- (P < 0.001) and 16.99-fold (P < 0.001), comparing patients in mild-I and most-I to the RS/WC class, respectively, after controlling for confounders.


Improvement in standing, social life, and employment are the most important determinants of patient satisfaction postsurgery. Reduced pain intensity and enhanced walking ability also help to elevate patient satisfaction. However, lifting, personal care, sitting, sleeping, and travelling may be of less importance. Examining the heterogeneity of patient-reported outcome in patients with ASD allows the identification of classes with different patient characteristics and satisfaction, and thus, help to guide tailored provision of care.

Level of evidence






Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Yang, Jingyan, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin Smith, Eric O Klineberg, Christopher I Shaffrey, Gregory Mundis, Richard Hostin, et al. (2019). Determinants of Patient Satisfaction 2 Years After Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Latent Class Analysis. Spine, 44(1). pp. E45–E52. 10.1097/brs.0000000000002753 Retrieved from

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Christopher Ignatius Shaffrey

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I have more than 25 years of experience treating patients of all ages with spinal disorders. I have had an interest in the management of spinal disorders since starting my medical education. I performed residencies in both orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire range of spinal disorders. My goal has been to find innovative ways to manage the range of spinal conditions, straightforward to complex. I have a focus on managing patients with complex spinal disorders. My patient evaluation and management philosophy is to provide engaged, compassionate care that focuses on providing the simplest and least aggressive treatment option for a particular condition. In many cases, non-operative treatment options exist to improve a patient’s symptoms. I have been actively engaged in clinical research to find the best ways to manage spinal disorders in order to achieve better results with fewer complications.

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