Bacteremic disseminated tuberculosis in sub-saharan Africa: a prospective cohort study.


BACKGROUND: Disseminated tuberculosis is a major health problem in countries where generalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemics coincide with high tuberculosis incidence rates; data are limited on patient outcomes beyond the inpatient period. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive eligible febrile inpatients in Moshi, Tanzania, from 10 March 2006 through 28 August 2010; those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia were followed up monthly for 12 months. Survival, predictors of bacteremic disseminated tuberculosis, and predictors of death were assessed. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis treatment were provided. RESULTS: A total of 508 participants were enrolled; 29 (5.7%) had M. tuberculosis isolated by blood culture. The median age of all study participants was 37.4 years (range, 13.6-104.8 years). Cough lasting >1 month (odds ratio [OR], 13.5; P< .001), fever lasting >1 month (OR, 7.8; P = .001), weight loss of >10% (OR, 10.0; P = .001), lymphadenopathy (OR 6.8; P = .002), HIV infection (OR, undefined; P < .001), and lower CD4 cell count and total lymphocyte count were associated with bacteremic disseminated tuberculosis. Fifty percent of participants with M. tuberculosis bacteremia died within 36 days of enrollment. Lower CD4 cell count (OR, 0.88; P = .049) and lower total lymphocyte count (OR, 0.76; P = .050) were associated with death. Magnitude of mycobacteremia tended to be higher among those with lower CD4 cell counts, but did not predict death. CONCLUSIONS: In the era of free ART and access to tuberculosis treatment, almost one half of patients with M. tuberculosis bacteremia may die within a month of hospitalization. Simple clinical assessments can help to identify those with the condition. Advanced immunosuppression predicts death. Efforts should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, tuberculosis, and disseminated disease.





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Publication Info

Crump, John A, Habib O Ramadhani, Anne B Morrissey, Wilbrod Saganda, Mtumwa S Mwako, Lan-Yan Yang, Shein-Chung Chow, Boniface N Njau, et al. (2012). Bacteremic disseminated tuberculosis in sub-saharan Africa: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis, 55(2). pp. 242–250. 10.1093/cid/cis409 Retrieved from

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John Andrew Crump

Adjunct Professor in the Department of Medicine

I am based in northern Tanzania where I am Site Leader for Duke University’s collaborative research program based at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre and Director of Tanzania Operations for the Duke Global Health Institute. I oversee the design and implementation of research studies on infectious diseases, particularly febrile illness, invasive bacterial disease, HIV-associated opportunistic infections, clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and infectious diseases diagnostics. In addition, I am a medical epidemiologist with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). My CDC work focuses on enteric infection epidemiology and prevention in developing countries, particularly invasive salmonelloses.


Shein-Chung Chow

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

My research interest includes statistical methodology development and application in the area of biopharmaceutical/clinical statistics such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, clinical trials, bridging studies, medical devices, and translational research/medicine. Most recently, I am interested in statistical methodology development for the use of adaptive design methods in clinical trials and methodology development for assessment of biosimilarity of follow-on biologics. In addition, I am also interested in methodology development for statistical evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical trials.


Lyman Barth Reller

Professor of Pathology

To develop and to evaluate procedures and protocols that support, enhance, and extend the ability of the clinical laboratories to carry out effectively their primary service and teaching responsibilities as relates to detection of sepsis, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and diagnosis of tuberculosis.

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