Multifaceted Intervention to Improve P2Y12 Inhibitor Adherence After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Stepped Wedge Trial.


Background P2Y12 inhibitor medications are critical following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, adherence remains suboptimal. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention to improve P2Y12 inhibitor adherence following PCI. Methods and Results This was a modified stepped wedge trial of 52 eligible hospitals, of which 15 were randomly selected and agreed to participate (29 hospitals declined, and 8 eligible hospitals were not contacted). At each intervention hospital, patient recruitment occurred for 6 months and enrolled patients were followed up for 1 year after PCI. Three control groups were used: patients at intervention hospitals undergoing PCI (1) before the intervention period (preintervention); (2) after the intervention period (postintervention); or (3) at the 8 hospitals not contacted (concurrent controls). The intervention consisted of 4 components: (1) P2Y12 inhibitor delivered to patients' bedside after PCI; (2) education on importance of P2Y12 inhibitors; (3) automated reminder telephone calls to refill medication; and (4) outreach to patients if they delayed refilling P2Y12 inhibitor. The primary outcomes were as follows: (1) proportion of patients with delays filling P2Y12 inhibitor at hospital discharge and (2) proportion of patients who were adherent in the year after PCI using pharmacy refill data. Primary analysis compared intervention with preintervention control patients. There were 1377 (intent-to-treat) potentially eligible patients, of whom 803 (per protocol) were approached at intervention sites versus 5910 preintervention, 2807 postintervention, and 4736 concurrent control patients. In the intent-to-treat analysis, intervention patients were less likely to delay filling P2Y12 at hospital discharge (-3.4%; 98.3% CI, -1.2% to -5.6%) and more likely to be adherent to P2Y12 (4.1%; 98.3% CI, 1.0%-7.1%) at 1 year, but had more clinical events (3.2%; 98.3% CI, 2.3%-4.1%) driven by repeated PCI compared with preintervention patients. In post hoc analysis looking at myocardial infarction, stroke, and death, intervention patients had lower event rates compared with preintervention patients (-1.7%; 98.3% CI, -2.3% to -1.1%). Conclusions A 4-component intervention targeting P2Y12 inhibitor adherence was difficult to implement. The intervention produced mixed results. It improved P2Y12 adherence, but there was also an increase in repeat PCI. Registration URL:; Unique identifier: NCT01609842.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Ho, P Michael, Colin I O'Donnell, Marina McCreight, Anthony A Bavry, Hayden B Bosworth, Saket Girotra, P Michael Grossman, Christian Helfrich, et al. (2022). Multifaceted Intervention to Improve P2Y12 Inhibitor Adherence After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Stepped Wedge Trial. Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(13). p. e024342. 10.1161/jaha.121.024342 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Hayden Barry Bosworth

Professor in Population Health Sciences

Dr. Bosworth is a health services researcher and Deputy Director of the Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT)  at the Durham VA Medical Center. He is also Vice Chair of Education and Professor of Population Health Sciences. He is also a Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Nursing at Duke University Medical Center and Adjunct Professor in Health Policy and Administration at the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research interests comprise three overarching areas of research: 1) clinical research that provides knowledge for improving patients’ treatment adherence and self-management in chronic care; 2) translation research to improve access to quality of care; and 3) eliminate health care disparities. 

Dr. Bosworth is the recipient of an American Heart Association established investigator award, the 2013 VA Undersecretary Award for Outstanding Achievement in Health Services Research (The annual award is the highest honor for VA health services researchers), and a VA Senior Career Scientist Award. In terms of self-management, Dr. Bosworth has expertise developing interventions to improve health behaviors related to hypertension, coronary artery disease, and depression, and has been developing and implementing tailored patient interventions to reduce the burden of other chronic diseases. These trials focus on motivating individuals to initiate health behaviors and sustaining them long term and use members of the healthcare team, particularly pharmacists and nurses. He has been the Principal Investigator of over 30 trials resulting in over 400 peer reviewed publications and four books. This work has been or is being implemented in multiple arenas including Medicaid of North Carolina, private payers, The United Kingdom National Health System Direct, Kaiser Health care system, and the Veterans Affairs.

Areas of Expertise: Health Behavior, Health Services Research, Implementation Science, Health Measurement, and Health Policy

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.