Bias induced diamond nucleation studies on refractory metal substrates

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The carbide forming nature of the substrate appears to be an important property when performing bias-enhanced nucleation (BEN); therefore, various refractory metals were studied since they are known carbide formers. Nucleation densities approaching 1×1010/cm2 were observed on both hafnium and titanium. The nucleation density on tantalum, niobium, and tungsten was enhanced to a lesser extent in descending order of influence, respectively. An induction time prior to the onset of significant diamond nucleation was observed on the refractory metals as well as on silicon and may be reliant upon the formation of a critical carbide thickness. Shorter induction times were observed for silicon which may be explained since this material forms a carbide of typically only several nanometers in thickness as opposed to the refractory metals which may form carbides on the order of several microns in thickness. Also, a strong correlation was observed between the carbide heat of formation and the nucleation densities at 60 min of BEN. These findings verify the relevance of a carbide formation to diamond nucleation via BEN and also provides a clue as to the mechanism(s) by which diamond is nucleating. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.






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Wolter, SD, JT Glass and BR Stoner (1995). Bias induced diamond nucleation studies on refractory metal substrates. Journal of Applied Physics, 77(10). pp. 5119–5124. 10.1063/1.359322 Retrieved from

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Jeffrey Glass

Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Jeffrey T. Glass is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Institute for Enterprise Engineering. He holds the Hogg Family endowed chair in Engineering Management and Entrepreneurship. Formerly, he was the Co-Director of The Institute for the Integration of Management and Engineering at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and held the Joseph F. Toot, Jr. endowed chair in the Case School of Engineering. Prior to these university appointments he was the Vice President of R&D for Kobe Steel USA Inc. Jeff received his Bachelors and Masters degrees from Johns Hopkins University, and a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Virginia. He also received an MBA from Duke University's Global Executive (GEMBA) program.

His current research involves electronic materials and the associated devices/instruments improved by these materials. In particular, miniature mass spectrometer development and engineered systems for waste treatment are systems of focus for his lab. He is also involved in the development of joint educational, research and technology transfer activities related to the intersection of business and technology. He consults and holds advisory board appointments with various companies in materials-related areas and has served as an expert witness in patent litigation. Prior to his appointment at CWRU, he was the Vice President of R&D for Kobe Steel USA Inc. with a focus on electronic materials. Prior to joining Kobe Steel, he was a tenured faculty member in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at North Carolina State University. He has been involved in the study of Innovation Management in technology-based organizations with a focus on the early stages of technical development and received the 2004 Industrial Research Institute’s Maurice Holland Award for his paper entitled “Managing the Ties Between Central R&D and Business Units.”

Jeff's technical research has focused on the growth and characterization of thin films for electronics, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphenated carbon nanotubes, diamond, silicon carbide and chalcogenides. Chemical vapor deposition, sputtering, materials analysis and electronic/electrochemical properties are his areas of interest. Miniature mass spectrometers, decentralized waste treatment, smart toilets and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices are some of the applications his lab focuses on. He has published over 175 papers and book chapters, edited seven books and is a co-inventor on 14 patents. He has been a short course instructor for several professional societies and companies and has organized numerous conferences. He has given over 75 invited presentations in 12 different countries. He served as a member of a Presidential Science Advisor's committee for the assessment of diamond technology in Japan and has received two teaching awards and the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator award. He has held adjunct faculty appointments at North Carolina State University, Case Western Reserve University and the Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina where he has taught executive courses on Managing Innovation.

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