History of Medicine in the Clerkships: A Novel Model for Integrating Medicine and History.

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The history of medicine has only unevenly been integrated into medical education. Previous attempts to incorporate the subject have focused either on the first year, with its already over-subscribed curriculum, or the fourth year in the form of electives that reach a small minority of students. Duke University provides an alternative model for other universities to consider. At our institution we have overcome many of the curricular limitations by including history during the mandatory third year clerkships. Reaching 100% of the medical school class, these sessions align with clinical disciplines, providing students a longitudinal perspective on what they are seeing and doing on the hospital wards. They are taught in conjunction with a medical history librarian and rely heavily on the utilization and interpretation of physical artifacts and archival manuscripts. The surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics rotations now feature successful and popular history of medicine sessions. Describing our lesson plans and featuring a list of both physical and online resources, we provide a model others can implement to increase the use, the framing, and the accessibility of history in their medical schools.





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Barr, Justin, Rachel Ingold and Jeffrey P Baker (2023). History of Medicine in the Clerkships: A Novel Model for Integrating Medicine and History. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 78(1). pp. 62–70. 10.1093/jhmas/jrac042 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/31174.

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Jeffrey Paul Baker

Professor of Pediatrics

I am a practicing pediatrician and a medical historian.   My early research focused on the early history of premature infant care and neonatal medicine.   Featured in my book, The Machine in the Nursery: Incubator Technology and the Origins of Neonatal Intensive Care, I examined how the controversy around the introduction of baby incubators at the dawn of the 20th century became a flash point for broader anxieties around medical technology, eugenics, and the role of physicians versus mothers in the care of young infants.   
My later research moved to this history of vaccines, and why this highly-regarded public health intervention ignited fierce public resistance in the late 20th century.  The alleged links between vaccines and autism were an important part of this story which led me to work on other aspect of the history of autism as well.  I have spoken and written in particular about the role of Leo Kanner in shaping both the definition of autism and the construction of an associated stereotype of parents as brilliant but cold and aloof.

In recent years I have been focusing on history, race, and health disparities.  I have been working on a project exploring this question in Duke's home community of Durham, North Carolina.   The first phase of this work looked at four case studies over the course of the past century:  tuberculosis in the early 1900s, childbirth during desegregation, HIV, and diabetes since 2000.   More recent work explores why understanding and acknowledging local history is essential to building trust between academic health centers and their communities.

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