Assessing the Enabling Environmental Factors for Large-Scale LPG Cookstove Adoption

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Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

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Approximately 2.8 billion people around the world still cook their meals and heat their homes with solid fuels. In addition to being inefficient, the use of solid fuels for cooking leads to high levels of pollution, deforestation, and severe environmental health concerns. Household air pollution is responsible for 4.3 million premature deaths annually, contributing 5% of the global disease burden and making indoor air pollution the most significant environmental risk factor in the world. Though clean, renewable energy is the optimal solution, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) cookstoves are currently being used as one significant option to transition away from solid fuel cooking systems. This paper systematically appraises large-scale LPG cookstove programs to determine (i) what common factors enable or limit adoption and sustained use of LPG in low- and middle-income countries, and (ii) what lessons can be learned concerning the policy implications for future programs. This paper reports on a systematic review of published literature using established search engines to appraise large-scale LPG cookstove programs and initiatives. Data extraction of quantitative, qualitative, and case studies was conducted to determine commonalities in enabling environmental factors across programs. 10 studies from Africa, Asia, and South America met the inclusion criteria, and these were used to identify trends in enabling environmental conditions established for supporting LPG dissemination. Factors such as financial mechanisms (e.g. equipment and fuel subsidies), market development (e.g. business involvement), regulations (e.g. government support), and other policy mechanisms (e.g. user training) were found to have helped enable LPG’s widespread adoption and/or continued use. Although there does not appear to be one set of factors that guarantee LPG use, there appears to be evidence that government support, market development, and policy mechanisms are notably advantageous. Ultimately, despite limitations in the quantity of evidence, this systematic review provides a starting point for assessing the different kinds of support needed for planning and execution of programs to encourage more effective adoption and sustained use of LPG as a cooking fuel.





McKinney, Jeannie (2017). Assessing the Enabling Environmental Factors for Large-Scale LPG Cookstove Adoption. Master's project, Duke University. Retrieved from

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