Stratifying outcome based on the Oswestry Disability Index for operative treatment of adult spinal deformity on patients 60 years of age or older: a multicenter, multi-continental study on Prospective Evaluation of Elderly Deformity Surgery (PEEDS).


Background context

Patients with adult spinal deformity suffer from disease related disability as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for which surgery can result in significant improvements.


The purpose of this study was to show the change in overall and individual components of the ODI in patients aged 60 years or older following multi-level spinal deformity surgery.

Study design

Prospective, multicenter, multi-continental, observational longitudinal cohort study PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients ≥60 years undergoing primary spinal fusion surgery of ≥5 levels for coronal, sagittal or combined deformity.

Outcome measures

Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) METHODS: : Patients completed the ODI pre-operatively for baseline, then at 10 weeks, 12 months and 24 months post-operatively. ODI scores were grouped into deciles, and change was calculated with numerical score and improvement or worsening was further categorized from baseline as substantial (≥20%), marginal (≥10-<20%) or no change (within 10%).


Two-hundred nineteen patients met inclusion criteria for the study. The median number of spinal levels fused was 9 [Q1=5.0, Q3=12.0]. Two-year mean (95% CI) ODI improvement was 19.3% (16.7%; 21.9%; p<.001) for all age groups, with mean scores improved from a baseline of 46.3% (44.1%; 48.4%) to 41.1% (38.5%; 43.6%) at 10 weeks (p<.001), 28.1% (25.6%; 30.6%) at 12 months (p<.001), and 27.0% (24.4%; 29.5%) at 24 months (p<.001). At 2 years, 45.5% of patients showed 20% or greater improvement in ODI, 23.7% improved between 10% and 20%, 26.3% reported no change (defined as±10% from baseline), 4.5% of patients reported a worsening between 10% to 20%, and none reported worsening greater than 20%. 59.0% of patients were severely disabled (ODI >40%) pre-operatively, which decreased to 20.2% at 2 years. Significant improvement was observed across all 10 ODI items at 12 and 24 months. The largest improvements were seen in pain, walking, standing, sex life, social life and traveling.


In this prospective, multicenter, multi-continental study of patients 60 years or older undergoing multi-level spinal deformity surgery, almost 70% of patients reported significant improvements in ODI without taking into account surgical indications, techniques or complications. Clear data is presented demonstrating the particular change from baseline for each decile of pre-operative ODI score, for each sub-score, and for each age group.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Nielsen, Christopher J, Stephen J Lewis, Colby Oitment, Allan R Martin, Lawrence G Lenke, Yong Qiu, Kenneth Mc Cheung, Marinus de Kleuver, et al. (2021). Stratifying outcome based on the Oswestry Disability Index for operative treatment of adult spinal deformity on patients 60 years of age or older: a multicenter, multi-continental study on Prospective Evaluation of Elderly Deformity Surgery (PEEDS). The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society, 21(11). pp. 1775–1783. 10.1016/j.spinee.2021.07.007 Retrieved from

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Christopher Ignatius Shaffrey

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I have more than 25 years of experience treating patients of all ages with spinal disorders. I have had an interest in the management of spinal disorders since starting my medical education. I performed residencies in both orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire range of spinal disorders. My goal has been to find innovative ways to manage the range of spinal conditions, straightforward to complex. I have a focus on managing patients with complex spinal disorders. My patient evaluation and management philosophy is to provide engaged, compassionate care that focuses on providing the simplest and least aggressive treatment option for a particular condition. In many cases, non-operative treatment options exist to improve a patient’s symptoms. I have been actively engaged in clinical research to find the best ways to manage spinal disorders in order to achieve better results with fewer complications.

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