Brazilian road traffic fatalities: a spatial and environmental analysis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. CONCLUSIONS: By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies.

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Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1371/journal.pone.0087244

Publication Info

de Andrade, Luciano, João Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Clarissa Garcia Rodrigues, Karen Finato, Elias Carvalho, Ricardo Pietrobon, Eniuce Menezes de Souza, Oscar Kenji Nihei, et al. (2014). Brazilian road traffic fatalities: a spatial and environmental analysis. PLoS One, 9(1). p. e87244. 10.1371/journal.pone.0087244 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/15376.

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Scholars@Duke

Vissoci

Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci

Assistant Professor in Emergency Medicine

Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, MSc, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Neurosurgery and Global Health. He is the Chief of the Division of Translational Health Sciences in the Department of Emergency Medicine, co-Director of the Global Emergency Medicine Innovation and Implementation (GEMINI) Research Center and a faculty member of the Research Design and Analysis Core (RDAC) in the Duke Global Health Institute. Dr. Vissoci has a background in social psychology and data science. Dr. Vissoci, a Brazilian native, earned a bachelor’s degree in Psychology from State University of Maringá/Brazil, a Masters in Physical Education, an MBA in Human Resources, and a PhD in Social Psychology. During his PhD, he completed a fellowship in Data Science at Duke University. After graduating his PhD in Social Psychology from the Pontificia Universidade Católica of São Paulo/Brazil, Dr. Vissoci completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Sao Paulo (2015) in Design and Analysis for Mental Health research. He completed a second postdoctoral fellowship at the Duke Global Health Institute in Global Health and Data Science in 2016. Dr. Vissoci held a faculty position and taught Public Health and Health Sciences in Brazil from 2009 to 2015. After completing his fellowship at DGHI, he joined the Duke Department of Emergency Medicine as faculty in 2017. In his last 14 years as faculty (2009-current), he has mentored over 200 trainees at all levels of training from undergraduate, graduate, medical education, postdoctoral to faculty level. He has published over 200 manuscripts and collaborated on over 6 R-level NIH grants, multiple (K and D) NIH training grants, other federal grants UK/Brazil based, and foundational grants.


His research interests focus on leveraging data through analytics and technology to bridge the gap in access and equity in care in low resource settings, translating evidence into practice or policy impact. He uses data science and mixed-methods research to design and implement innovative data-driven solutions to address health care gaps.

Staton

Catherine Ann Staton

Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine

Catherine Staton MD MSc

Dr. Staton is an Associate Professor in Emergency Medicine (EM), Neurosurgery & Global Health with tenure at Duke University. She is the Director of the GEMINI (Global EM Innovation & Implementation) Research Center and the EM Vice Chair of Research Strategy & Faculty Development. Her research integrates innovative implementation methods into health systems globally to improve access to acute care. In 2012, with an injury registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Tanzania Dr. Staton demonstrated 30% of injury patients had at risk alcohol use, providing preliminary data for a K01/Career Development Award. Her K01 award adapted a brief alcohol intervention to the KCMC ED and Swahili and is now being trialed in an NIAAA funded R01 pragmatic adaptive clinical trial. Dr. Staton and her mentor and collaborator Dr. Mmbaga are co-PD of the “The TReCK Program: Trauma Research Capacity Building in Kilimanjaro” to train 12 masters and doctoral learners to conduct innovative implementation and data science projects to improve care for injury patients. Currently, Dr. Staton and GEMINI partners with over a dozen faculty from over 6 low- and middle-income countries to conduct research, has mentored over 150 learners from undergraduate to post-doctoral levels from high, middle and low- income settings and has over 130 manuscripts.


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