Thrombomodulin in disseminated intravascular coagulation and other critical conditions-a multi-faceted anticoagulant protein with therapeutic potential.

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Thrombomodulin plays a vital role in maintaining intravascular patency due to its anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions such as sepsis and systemic inflammation, endothelial thrombomodulin expression is downregulated and its function impaired. As a result, administering thrombomodulin represents a potential therapeutic modality. Recently, the effect of recombinant thrombomodulin administration in sepsis-induced coagulopathy was evaluated in a randomized controlled study (SCARLET). A 2.6% 28-day absolute mortality reduction (26.8% vs. 29.4%) was reported in 800 patients studied that was not statistically significant; however, a post hoc analysis revealed a 5.4% absolute mortality reduction among the patients who fulfilled the entry criterion at baseline. The risk of bleeding did not increase compared to placebo control. Favorable effects of thrombomodulin administration have been reported not only in sepsis-induced coagulopathy but also in disseminated intravascular coagulations with various backgrounds. Interestingly, beneficial effects of recombinant thrombomodulin in respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular diseases might depend on its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the accumulated knowledge of endogenous as well as recombinant thrombomodulin from basic to clinical aspects and suggest future directions for this novel therapeutic agent.





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Ito, Takashi, Jecko Thachil, Hidesaku Asakura, Jerrold H Levy and Toshiaki Iba (2019). Thrombomodulin in disseminated intravascular coagulation and other critical conditions-a multi-faceted anticoagulant protein with therapeutic potential. Critical care (London, England), 23(1). p. 280. 10.1186/s13054-019-2552-0 Retrieved from

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Jerrold Henry Levy

Professor of Anesthesiology

Jerrold Levy is Professor of Anesthesiology, Critical Care, and Surgery (Cardiothoracic) at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC. He obtained his medical degree from the University of Miami, where he was an intern in internal medicine, and undertook his residency in the Department of Anesthesiology of the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, where he was also Chief Resident, and completed fellowships in both Respiratory ICU and Cardiac Anesthesiology.  He previously was Professor, Deputy Chair for Research, and Chief of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology at Emory University School of Medicine. His clinical and research interests include anticoagulation and its reversal, therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat coagulopathy and acute inflammatory responses in critically ill patients, clinical applications of recombinant and purified protein concentrates to treat bleeding, and pharmacologic approaches to treat shock.  He is currently Chair of the Subcommittee on Perioperative and Critical Care Thrombosis and Hemostasis for the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Executive Editor of Anesthesiology, and consultant to the FDA‘s Biologic Products Advisory Committee.  He is the author of over 450 publications on PubMED, with over 100,000 citations on Google Scholar and a h-index of 95. He is also fluent in French and conversational in Spanish and Japanese.

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