Benchmark Values for Construct Survival and Complications by Type of ASD Surgery.



Provide benchmarks for the rates of complications by type of surgery performed.

Study design

Prospective multicenter database.


We have previously examined overall construct survival and complication rates for ASD surgery. However, the relationship between type of surgery and construct survival warrants more detailed assessment.


Eight surgical scenarios were defined based on the levels treated, previous fusion status (primary [P] vs. revision [R]), and 3-column osteotomy use [3CO]: Short Lumbar fusion, LT-Pelvis with 5-12 levels treated (P, R or 3CO), UT-Pelvis with  13 levels treated (P, R or 3CO), and Thoracic to Lumbar fusion without pelvic fixation, representing 92.4% of the case in the cohort. Complication rates for each type were calculated and Kaplan Meier curves with multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of the case characteristics on construct survival rate, while controlling for patient profile.


1073 of 1494 patients eligible for 2-year follow-up (71.8%) were captured. Survival curves for major complications (with or without reoperation), while controlling for demographics differed significantly among surgical types (P<0.001). Fusion procedures short of the pelvis had the best survival rate, while UT-Pelvis with 3CO had the worst survival rate. Longer fusions and more invasive operations were associated with lower 2-year complication-free survival, however there were no significant associations between type of surgery and renal, cardiac, infection, wound, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, implant malposition or neurologic complications (all P>0.5).


This study suggests that there is an inherent increased risk of complication for some types of ASD surgery independent of patient profile. The results of this paper can be used to produce a surgery-adjusted benchmark for ASD surgery with regard to complications and survival. Such a tool can have very impactful applications for surgical decision making and more informed patient counseling.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Bass, R Daniel, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Christopher Ames, Shay Bess, Robert Eastlack, Munish Gupta, Richard Hostin, et al. (2024). Benchmark Values for Construct Survival and Complications by Type of ASD Surgery. Spine. 10.1097/brs.0000000000005012 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Christopher Ignatius Shaffrey

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I have more than 25 years of experience treating patients of all ages with spinal disorders. I have had an interest in the management of spinal disorders since starting my medical education. I performed residencies in both orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire range of spinal disorders. My goal has been to find innovative ways to manage the range of spinal conditions, straightforward to complex. I have a focus on managing patients with complex spinal disorders. My patient evaluation and management philosophy is to provide engaged, compassionate care that focuses on providing the simplest and least aggressive treatment option for a particular condition. In many cases, non-operative treatment options exist to improve a patient’s symptoms. I have been actively engaged in clinical research to find the best ways to manage spinal disorders in order to achieve better results with fewer complications.

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