Co-Treatment of Chloroquine and Trametinib Inhibits Melanoma Cell Proliferation and Decreases Immune Cell Infiltration


<jats:p>Autophagy is characterized as a cytoprotective process and inhibition of autophagy with medicinally active agents, such as chloroquine (CQ) is proposed as a prospective adjuvant therapy for cancer. Here, we examined the preclinical effects of CQ combined with the MEK inhibitor trametinib (TRA) on melanoma. We found that cotreatment of CQ and TRA markedly slowed melanoma growth induced in <jats:italic>Tyr-CreER</jats:italic>.<jats:italic>Braf<jats:sup>Ca.</jats:sup>Pten<jats:sup>fl/fl</jats:sup></jats:italic> mice. Immunostaining showed that trametinib decreased Ki-67+ proliferating cells, and increased TUNEL+ apoptotic cells. The combo treatment induced a further decrease of Ki-67+ proliferating cells. Consistent with the <jats:italic>in vivo</jats:italic> findings, CQ and TRA inhibited melanoma cell proliferation <jats:italic>in vitro</jats:italic>, which was correlated by decreased cyclin D1 expression. In addition, we found that tissues treated with CQ and TRA had significantly decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and F4/80+ macrophages. Together, these results indicate that cotreatment of CQ and TRA decreases cancer cell proliferation, but also dampens immune cell infiltration. Further study is warranted to understand whether CQ-induced immune suppression inadvertently affects therapeutic benefits.</jats:p>






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Publication Info

Degan, Simone, Brian L May, Yingai J Jin, Manel Ben Hammoda, Huiying Sun, Guoqiang Zhang, Yan Wang, Detlev Erdmann, et al. (n.d.). Co-Treatment of Chloroquine and Trametinib Inhibits Melanoma Cell Proliferation and Decreases Immune Cell Infiltration. Frontiers in Oncology, 12. 10.3389/fonc.2022.782877 Retrieved from

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Jennifer Yunyan Zhang

Professor in Dermatology

Epidermis of the skin constitutes the largest organ and the outer most barrier of the body. It is one of the few organs that undergo lifelong self-renewal through a tight balance of cell growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. Deregulation of this balance is manifested in many diseases, including various immune diseases and cancer. 

Our lab is focused on 3 interrelated topics:

1. Gene regulation of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

Using regenerated human skin tissues and murine genetic models, we have demonstrated important functions NF-kB and AP-1 gene regulators in epidermal cell growth and differentiation. Currently, our efforts are focused on understating how loss-of-function of CYLD, a deubiquitinase and tumor suppressor, leads to the development of hair follicle defects, skin inflammation, and cancer. Specifically, we want to determine how CYLD integrates NF-kB, AP1, Myc, and other transcription factors to control epidermal cell growth and lineage differentiation.

De novo skin regeneration is life-saving procedure for severely burned patients and lethal genetic skin diseases such as epidermal bullosa. An additional aspect of our study is to improve new skin regeneration techniques and to create experimental skin disease models with gene transduced keratinocytes, as illustrated below.

2. Keratinocytes as instigators of inflammatory responses

Keratinocytes are constantly challenged by external insults, as well as immune cells. Disarray of the crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells underlies various immune diseases, including dermatitis, psoriasis, and cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD is a common complication and the leading cause of non-relapse mortality among patients after receiving allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  The skin is the most commonly affected organ in both the acute and chronic forms of this disease.  Treatment options for GVHD are limited and the current standard therapy is high dose systemic corticosteroid which is itself associated with significant morbidity. Our goal is to understand how keratinocytes contribute to the progression of GVHD, and may therefore be targeted to mitigate the disease.

3. Ubiquitination enzymes in melanoma

Melanoma most lethal and difficult to treat skin cancer. In the recent years, BRAF/MEK-targeted therapies have produced exciting results, but they suffer from short duration. Our goal is to uncover novel mechanisms crucial for melanoma malignancy. Specifically, we want to understand how ubiquitination enzymes contribute to melanoma growth. Previously, we have demonstrated that CYLD inhibits melanoma growth through suppression of JNK/AP1 and b1-integrin signaling pathways. In contrast, UBE2N, a K63-Ubiquitin conjusage, promotes melanoma growth in part through activation of the MEK/FRA/SOX10 signaling cascade. Currently, our efforts are focused on understanding how UBE2N and other ubiquitin enzymes regulate the MAPK signaling pathway and whether they can be targeted for melanoma therapy.


Detlev Erdmann

Professor of Surgery

Warren S. Warren

James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Chemistry

Our work focuses on the design and application of what might best be called novel pulsed techniques, using controlled radiation fields to alter dynamics. The heart of the work is chemical physics, and most of what we do is ultrafast laser spectroscopy or nuclear magnetic resonance. It generally involves an intimate mixture of theory and experiment: recent publications are roughly an equal mix of pencil- and-paper theory, computer calculations with our workstations, and experiments. Collaborations also play an important role, particularly for medical applications.

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