Cervical mismatch: the normative value of T1 slope minus cervical lordosis and its ability to predict ideal cervical lordosis.
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OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have attempted to delineate the normative value for T1S-CL (T1 slope minus cervical lordosis) as a marker for both cervical deformity and a goal for correction similar to how PI-LL (pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis) mismatch informs decision making in thoracolumbar adult spinal deformity (ASD). The goal of this study was to define the relationship between T1 slope (T1S) and cervical lordosis (CL).
METHODS: This is a retrospective review of a prospective database. Surgical ASD cases were initially analyzed. Analysis across the sagittal parameters was performed. Linear regression analysis based on T1S was used to provide a clinically applicable equation to predict CL. Findings were validated using the postoperative alignment of the ASD patients. Further validation was then performed using a second, normative database. The range of normal alignment associated with horizontal gaze was derived from a multilinear regression on data from asymptomatic patients.
RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (mean age 54.7 years) were included. Analysis revealed a strong correlation between T1S and C0-7 lordosis (r = 0.886), C2-7 lordosis (r = 0.815), and C0-2 lordosis (r = 0.732). There was no significant correlation between T1S and T1S-CL. Linear regression analysis revealed that T1S-CL assumed a constant value of 16.5° (R2 = 0.664, standard error 2°). These findings were validated on the postoperative imaging (mean absolute error [MAE] 5.9°). The equation was then applied to the normative database (MAE 6.7° controlling for McGregor slope [MGS] between -5° and 15°). A multilinear regression between C2-7, T1S, and MGS demonstrated a range of T1S-CL between 14.5° and 26.5° was necessary to maintain horizontal gaze.
CONCLUSIONS: Normative CL can be predicted via the formula CL = T1S - 16.5° ± 2°. This implies a threshold of deformity and aids in providing a goal for surgical correction. Just as pelvic incidence (PI) can be used to determine the ideal LL, T1S can be used to predict ideal CL. This formula also implies that a kyphotic cervical alignment is to be expected for individuals with a T1S < 16.5°.
Published Version (Please cite this version)
Staub, Blake N, Renaud Lafage, Han Jo Kim, Christopher I Shaffrey, Gregory M Mundis, Richard Hostin, Douglas Burton, Lawrence Lenke, et al. (2018). Cervical mismatch: the normative value of T1 slope minus cervical lordosis and its ability to predict ideal cervical lordosis. Journal of neurosurgery. Spine, 30(1). pp. 31–37. 10.3171/2018.5.spine171232 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/28245.
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I have more than 25 years of experience treating patients of all ages with spinal disorders. I have had an interest in the management of spinal disorders since starting my medical education. I performed residencies in both orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire range of spinal disorders. My goal has been to find innovative ways to manage the range of spinal conditions, straightforward to complex. I have a focus on managing patients with complex spinal disorders. My patient evaluation and management philosophy is to provide engaged, compassionate care that focuses on providing the simplest and least aggressive treatment option for a particular condition. In many cases, non-operative treatment options exist to improve a patient’s symptoms. I have been actively engaged in clinical research to find the best ways to manage spinal disorders in order to achieve better results with fewer complications.
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