Intracardiac acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear wave imaging in pigs with focal infarctions.

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Four pigs, three with focal infarctions in the apical intraventricular septum (IVS) and/or left ventricular free wall (LVFW), were imaged with an intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) transducer. Custom beam sequences were used to excite the myocardium with focused acoustic radiation force (ARF) impulses and image the subsequent tissue response. Tissue displacement in response to the ARF excitation was calculated with a phase-based estimator, and transverse wave magnitude and velocity were each estimated at every depth. The excitation sequence was repeated rapidly, either in the same location to generate 40 Hz M-modes at a single steering angle, or with a modulated steering angle to synthesize 2-D displacement magnitude and shear wave velocity images at 17 points in the cardiac cycle. Both types of images were acquired from various views in the right and left ventricles, in and out of infarcted regions. In all animals, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) estimates indicated diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction in noninfarcted tissues. The M-mode sequences showed high beat-to-beat spatio-temporal repeatability of the measurements for each imaging plane. In views of noninfarcted tissue in the diseased animals, no significant elastic remodeling was indicated when compared with the control. Where available, views of infarcted tissue were compared with similar views from the control animal. In views of the LVFW, the infarcted tissue presented as stiff and non-contractile compared with the control. In a view of the IVS, no significant difference was seen between infarcted and healthy tissue, whereas in another view, a heterogeneous infarction was seen to be presenting itself as non-contractile in systole.





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Hollender, Peter, David Bradway, Patrick Wolf, Robi Goswami and Gregg Trahey (2013). Intracardiac acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear wave imaging in pigs with focal infarctions. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control, 60(8). pp. 1669–1682. 10.1109/TUFFC.2013.2749 Retrieved from

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David Bradway

Research Scientist, Senior

David P. Bradway is a research scientist in the Biomedical Engineering Department at Duke University. He earned his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering in 2013 from Duke. Afterward, he was a guest postdoc at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), supported by a Whitaker International Program Scholarship. He has conducted research internships at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Volcano Corporation, and Siemens Healthcare, working on ultrasound research since 2002.


Patrick D. Wolf

Associate Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering

My research is primarily in the area of advanced instrumentation for diagnosis and treatment of electrophysiological problems. This research covers two primary organ systems: the heart and the brain.

One thrust of the cardiac-based work is centered on atrial fibrillation and in particular on very low energy atrial defibrillation strategies. The goal is to produce a device that can defibrillate the atria with a painless series of electrical impulses. A second area of interest is the study of the biophysics of radio frequency ablation of the heart. A third avenue of research in the cardiac area is the development of new instruments and techniques for tracking interventional devices within the body without the use of ionizing radiation. These devices primarily rely on ultrasound technology. There is a strong collaborative effort in this area with the Duke Ultrasound group in the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The long term goal of this work is to develop technology to deliver image-guided therapy to target tissues in the heart and other organs.

In neuroengineering, we are currently developing a "brainchip" that would telemeter information recorded directly from neurons in the brain to a remote device. This IC based technology is being developed for application in neuro-prosthetic or brain controlled devices. There is a close collaboration on this project between our lab and the laboratory of Dr. Miguel Nicolelis the Department of Neurobiology. We are also developing advanced neural recoding systems to use on unrestrained, untethered animals as they learn to perform certain tasks.


Gregg E. Trahey

Robert Plonsey Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering

My laboratory develops and evaluates novel ultrasonic imaging methods. Current projects involve high resolutioon imaging of the breast and mechanical characterization of the breast and cardiovascular system. We conduct phantom, animal, ex vivo and in vivo trials. Current clinical trials involve imaging of soft and hard vascular plaques and mecahnical imaging of breast lesions.

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