Three-dimensional Holographic Lithography and Manipulation Using a Spatial Light Modulator

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This research presents the development of a phase-based lithographic system for three-dimensional micropatterning and manipulation. The system uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to display specially designed phase holograms. The use of holograms with the SLM provides a novel approach to photolithography that offers the unique ability to operate in both serial and single-shot modes. In addition to the lithographic applications, the optical system also possesses the capability to optically trap microparticles. New advances include the ability to rapidly modify pattern templates for both serial and single-shot lithography, individually control three-dimensional structural properties, and manipulate Janus particles with five degrees of freedom.

A number of separate research investigations were required to develop the optical system and patterning method. The processes for designing a custom optical system, integrating a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) platform, and constructing series of phase holograms are presented. The resulting instrument was used primarily for the photonic excitation of both photopolymers and proteins and, in addition, for the manipulation of Janus particles. Defining research focused on the automated fabrication of complex three-dimensional microscale structures based on the virtual designs provided by a custom CAD/CAM interface. Parametric studies were conducted to access the patterning transfer rate and resolution of the system.

The research presented here documents the creation of an optical system that is capable of the accurate reproduction of pre-designed microstructures and optical paths, applicable to many current and future research applications, and useable by anyone interested in researching on the microscale.





Jenness, Nathan J. (2009). Three-dimensional Holographic Lithography and Manipulation Using a Spatial Light Modulator. Dissertation, Duke University. Retrieved from


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