The INTUIT Study: Investigating Neuroinflammation Underlying Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Every year, up to 40% of the more than 16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated with decreased quality of life, increased mortality, and a possible increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. One pathologic process hypothesized to underlie both delirium and POCD is neuroinflammation. The INTUIT study described here will determine the extent to which postoperative increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels and monocyte numbers are associated with delirium and/or POCD and their underlying brain connectivity changes. DESIGN:Observational prospective cohort. SETTING:Duke University Medical Center, Duke Regional Hospital, and Duke Raleigh Hospital. PARTICIPANTS:Patients 60 years of age or older (N = 200) undergoing noncardiac/nonneurologic surgery. MEASUREMENTS:Participants will undergo cognitive testing before, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. Delirium screening will be performed on postoperative days 1 to 5. Blood and CSF samples are obtained before surgery, and 24 hours, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. CSF MCP-1 levels are measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and CSF monocytes are assessed by flow cytometry. Half the patients will also undergo pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. 32-channel intraoperative electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings will be performed to identify intraoperative EEG correlates of neuroinflammation and/or postoperative cognitive resilience. Eighty patients will also undergo home sleep apnea testing to determine the relationships between sleep apnea severity, neuroinflammation, and impaired postoperative cognition. Additional assessments will help evaluate relationships between delirium, POCD, and other geriatric syndromes. CONCLUSION:INTUIT will use a transdisciplinary approach to study the role of neuroinflammation in postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction and their associated functional brain connectivity changes, and it may identify novel targets for treating and/or preventing delirium and POCD and their sequelae.

Department

Description

Provenance

Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1111/jgs.15770

Publication Info

Berger, Miles, Deborah Oyeyemi, Mobolaji O Olurinde, Heather E Whitson, Kent J Weinhold, Marty G Woldorff, Lewis A Lipsitz, Eugene Moretti, et al. (2019). The INTUIT Study: Investigating Neuroinflammation Underlying Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 10.1111/jgs.15770 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/17958.

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.

Scholars@Duke

Berger

Miles Berger

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

My research team focuses on 3 areas:

1) We are interested in the mechanisms of postoperative neurocognitive disorders such as delirium, and the relationship between these disorders and Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD). Towards these ends, we use a combination of methods including pre and postoperative CSF and blood sampling, functional neuroimaging, EEG recordings, rigorous biochemical assays, and cognitive testing and delirium screening. In the long run, this work has the potential to help us improve long term neurocognitive outcomes for the more than 20 million Americans over age 60 who undergo anesthesia and surgery each year.

2) We are interested in the idea that altered anesthetic-induced brain EEG waveforms can serve as indicators of specific types of preclinical/prodromal neurodegenerative disease pathology, specific cognitive domain deficits, and postoperative delirium risk. We are studying this topic in the ALADDIN study, a 250 patient prospective cohort study in older surgical patients at Duke. Many people have viewed anesthesia and surgery as a "stress test" for the aging brain; we hope that this work will help us learn how to develop a real-time EEG readout of this "perioperative stress test" for the aging brain, just as ECG analysis can provide a real-time readout of cardiac treadmill stress tests. 

3) We are interested in how the APOE4 allele damages brain circuitry throughout the adult lifespan, and how this contributes to increased risk of late onset Alzheimer's disease as well as worse outcomes following other acute brain disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In particular, we are investigating the hypothesis that the APOE4 allele leads to increased CNS complement activation throughout adult life, which then contributes to increased synaptic phagocytosis and long term neurocognitive decline. We are also studying whether acutely modulating APOE signaling in older surgical patients with the APOE mimetic peptide CN-105 is sufficient to block postoperative CSF neuroinflammation and complement activation. 

Our work is transdisciplinary, and thus our team includes individuals with diverse scientific and clinical backgrounds, ranging from neuropsychology and neuroimaging to proteomics, flow cytometry and behavioral neuroscience in animal models. What unites us is the desire to better understand mechanisms of age-dependent brain dysfunction, both in the perioperative setting and in APOE4 carriers. 

Whitson

Heather Elizabeth Whitson

Professor of Medicine

Dr. Whitson's research is focused on improving care options and resilience for people with multiple chronic conditions.  In particular, she has interest and expertise related to the link between age-related changes in the eye and brain (e.g., How does late-life vision loss impact the aging brain or cognitive outcomes?  Is Alzheimer's disease associated with distinctive changes in the retina, and could such changes help diagnose Alzheimer's disease early in its course?).  Dr. Whitson leads a collaborative Alzheimer's Disease initiative that brings together investigators from Duke University and the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, with a bold vision to transform dementia research and care across Eastern North Carolina. Dr. Whitson is also interested in improving health services to better meet the needs of medically complex patients.  Within the Duke Aging Center, she leads research efforts aimed at promoting resilience to late-life stressors (e.g., surgery, sensory loss, infection).  She has developed a novel rehabilitation model for people with co-existing vision and cognitive deficits, and she is part of a inter-disciplinary team seeking to improve peri-operative outcomes for frail or at-risk seniors who must undergo surgery.  As a co-leader of a national resilience collaborative, she seeks to better understand the biological and psychological factors that determine how well we "bounce back" after health stressors.  

Weinhold

Kent James Weinhold

Joseph W. and Dorothy W. Beard Distinguished Professor of Experimental Surgery

The Weinhold Laboratory is currently focused on utilizing a comprehensive repertoire of highly standardized and formerly validated assay platforms to profile the human immune system in order to identify immunologic signatures that predict disease outcomes. These ongoing studies span a broad range of highly relevant clinical arenas, including: 1) cancer (non-small cell lung cancer, head and neck cancer, glioblastoma neoforme, ovarian cancer, and prostate cancer), 2) autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, multiple sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis), 3) pulmonary disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), 4) solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, liver, and heart), and 5) inflammatory disorders.

Two of the areas that have been especially active over the past few years include the comprehensive immunologic profiling of cancer patients receiving so-called ‘immune checkpoint blockade’ therapies and the search for immune signatures in lung transplant recipients that track with resistance to CMV infection. The laboratory conducted immune monitoring studies associated with a Phase I trial of Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) in a neoadjuvant setting for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For this trial we extensively utilized several high parameter flow cytometry (PFC) platforms to follow activation, maturation, exhaustion, and proliferation patterns within CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of T-cells. We are also utilizing an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) platform in efforts to detect anti-tumor associated antigen (TAA) responses by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as lymphocytes infiltrating the patients’ tumor. These assays are designed to measure antigen-driven intracellular production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, as well as the degranulation marker CD107a. This strategy enables us to not only document individual cytokine responses, but to also assess (through Boolean gating) changes in relative polyfunctionality of the responses. We have also performed similar immune monitoring of a Phase II trial evaluating nivolumab (anti-PD-1) alone vs. combined nivolumamb + ipilimumab vs. avastin (bevacizamab) alone in patients with glioblastomas. In both studies, we are seeking to identify pharmacodynamics markers and immune correlates predictive of clinical responses. In completed studies of a cohort of lung transplant recipients, we identified specific polyfunctional signatures in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets against CMV pp65 and IE-1 antigens that tracked with resistance to CMV infection (manuscript in preparation). These findings now serve as the basis for a Phase I clinical trial to compare conventional 6-month chemoprophylaxis in lung transplant recipients versus a regimen dictated by the presence or absence of the predictive signatures. This trial is the principal component of a recently awarded Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation or CTOT award made from the NIH to Duke (Scott Palmer, PI). Ongoing studies will test the hypothesis that these signatures that have been validated in lung transplant recipients will also predict resistance to CMV infection in the context of other solid organ transplants such as kidney, liver, and heart.Future studies will also attempt to identify predictive signatures for resistance to BK polyomavirus, the cause of graft threatening nephritis in kidney transplant recipients and cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients.  

 

Recent publications


Zidar, D.A., Mudd, J.C., Juchnowski, S., Lopes, J.P., Sparks, S., Park, S.S., Ishikawa, M., Osborne, R., Washam, J.B., Chan, C., Funderburg, N.T., Owoyele, A., Alaiti, M.A., Mayuga, M., Orringer, C., Costa, M.A., Simon, D.I., Tatsuoka, C., Califf, R.M., Newby, L.K., Lederman, M.M., and Weinhold, K.J.  Altered maturation status and possible immune exhaustion of CD8 T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Arterioscler., Thromb., and Vasc. Biol. 36(2): 389-397, Feb. 2016 PMID: 26663396

Yi, J.S., Ready, N., Healy, P., Dumbauld, C., Berry, M., Shoemaker, D., Clarke, J., Crawford, J., Tong, B.C., Harpole, D., D’Amico, T.A., McSherry, F., Dunphy, F., McCall, S.J., Christensen, J.D., Wang, X, and Weinhold, K.J. Immune activation in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus ipilimumab. Clin. Cancer Res. 23(24):7474-7482, 2017. PMCID: PMC5732888.

Reap, E., Suryadevera, C., Batuch, K., Sanchez-Perez, L., Archer, G., Schmittling, R., Norberg, P., Herndon II, J., Healy, P., Congdon, K., Gedeon, P., Campbell, O., Swartz, A., Riccione, K., Yi, J., Hossain-Ibrahim, M., Saraswathula, A., Nair, S., Anastasie, A., Broome, T., Weinhold, K.J., Desjardins, A., Vlahoviv, G., Mclendon, R., Firedman, H., Bigner, D., Fecci, P., Mitchell, D., and Sampson, J. Dendritic cells enhance polyfunctionality of adoptively transferred T cells which target cytomegalovirus in glioblastoma. Cancer Research 78(1):256-264, 2018. PMCID: PMC5754236.

Woroniecka, K., Chongsathidkiet, P., Rhodin, K., Kemeny, H., Dechant, C., Elsamadicy, A.A., Koyama, S., Jackson, C., Farber, H.S., Elsamadicy, A.A., Cui, X., Koyama, S., Jackson, C., Hansen, L., Bigner, D.D., Giles, A., Healy, P., Dranoff, G., Weinhold, K.J., Dunn, G.P., and Fecci, P.E. T cell exhaustion signatures vary with tumor type and are severe in glioblastoma. Clin. Cancer Res. Sep 1;24(17)4175-4186, 2018. PMCID: PMC6081269.

Weinhold, K.J., Bukowski, J.F., Brennan, T.V., Noveck, R.J., Staats, J.S., Lin, L., Stempora, L., Hammond, C., Wouters, A., Mojcik, C.F., Cheng, J., Collinge, M., Jesson, M.I., Hazra, A., Biswas, P., Lan, S., Clark, J.D., and Hodge, J.A. Reversibility of peripheral blood leukocyte phenotypic and functional changes after exposure to and withdrawal from tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. Clin. Immunology 191:10-20, June 19, 2018. PMCID: PMC6036921.

Berger, M., Oyeyemi, D, Olurinde, M.O., Whitson, H.E., Weinhold, K.J., Woldorff, M.G., Lipsitz, L.A., Moretti, E., Giattino, C.M., Rpberts, K.C., Zhou, J., Bunning, T., Ferrandino, M., Scheri, R.P., Cooter, M., Chan, C., Cabeza, R., Browndyke, J.N., Murdoch, D.M., Devinney, M.J., Shaw, L.M., Cohen, H.J., Mathew, J.P., and the INTUIT Investigators. The INTUIT Study: Investigating neuroinflammation underlying postoperative cognitive dysfunction. J. American Geriatrics Society 67940;794-798, 2019. PMCID: PMC6688749.

Berger, M., Murdoch, D., Staats, J., Chan, C., Thomas J., Garrigues, G., Browndyke, J., Cooter, M., Quinones, Q., Matthew, J., and Weinhold, K.J. Flow cytometry characterization of cerebrospinal fluid monocytes in patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD): A pilot study. Anesthesia & Analgesia May 3, 2019 doi: 10.1213/ANE. PMCID: PMC6800758.

Nyanhete, T.E., Frisbee, A., Bradley, T., Faison, W.J., Robins, E., Payne, T.,Freel, S.A., Sawant, S., Weinhold, K.J., Wiehe, K., Haynes, B.F., Ferrari, G., Li, Q-J., Moody, M.A., and Tomaras, G.D. HLA class II-restricted CD8+T cells in HIV-1 virus controllers. Nat. Sci. Rep. 9(1):10165, 2019; PMCID: PMC6629643.

Yi, J.S., Rosa-Bray, M., Staats, J., Zakroysky, P., Chan, C., Russo, M., Dumbauld, C., White, S., Gierman, T., Weinhold, K.J., and Guptill, J.T. Establishment of normative ranges of the healthy immune system with comprehensive polychromatic flow cytometry profiling. PLoS One 14(12):e0225512, Dec.11, 2019. PMCID: PMC6905525.

Healy, Z.R., Weinhold, K.J., and Murdoch D.M. Transcriptional profiling of CD8+ CMV-specific T cell functional subsets obtained using a method for isolating high-quality RNA from fixed and permeabilized cells. Frontiers in Immunology 11:1859, Sep. 2, 2020. PMCID: PMC7492549.

Zhang, T., Harrison, M.R., O’Donnell, P.H., Ajjai, A., Hahn, N.M., Appleman, L.J., Cetnar, J., Burke, J.M., Fleming, M., Miloswsky. M., Mortazavi, A., Shore, N., Sonapavde, G., Schmidt, E., Bitman, B., Munugalavadla, V., Izumi, P., Patel, P., Staats, J., Chan, C., Weinhold, K.J.*and George, D.J.,*senior co-authors. A randomized phase 2 trial of pembrolizumab versus pembrolizumab and acalabrutinib in patients with platinum-resistant metastatic urothelial cancer. Cancer Oct.15, 2020 126(20):4485-4497. PMCID: PMC7590121

Salama, A.K.S., Palta, M., Rushing, C.N., Selim, M.A., Linnet, K.N., Czito, B.G., Yoo, D.S., Hanks, B.A., Beasley, G.M., Mosca, P., Dumbauld, C., Steadman, K.N., Yi, J.S., Weinhold, K.J., Tyler, D.S., Lee, W.T., and Brizel, D.M. Ipilimumab and radiation in patients with high risk resected or regionally advanced melanoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 1 March, 2021 27(5):1287-1295. PMCID: PMC8759408.

Li, Y., Yi, J.S., Russo, M.., Rosa-Bray, M., Weinhold. K.J., and Guptill, J.T. Normative dataset for plasma cytokines in healthy human adults. Data Brief 2021 Feb. 9;35:106857. PMCID: PMC7900339

White, S., Quinn, J., Enzor, E., Staats, J., Mosier, S.M., Almarode, J., Denny, T.N., Weinhold, K., Ferrari, G., and Chan, C. FlowKit: A Python toolkit for integrated manual and automated cytometry analysis workflows. Frontiers in Immunology 12:768541,Nov. 5, 2021. PMCID: PMC8602902.

Sung, B-Y., Lin, Y-H., Shah, P.D., Bieler, J.G., Palmer, S., Weinhold, K.J., Chang, H-R., Huang, H., Avery, R.K., Schneck, J., and Chiu, Y-L. Wnt activation promotes memory T cell polyfunctionality via epigenetic regulator PRMT1. J. Clin. Invest. 132(2):e140508, January 18, 2022. PMCID: PMC8759796.

Lusk, J.B., Quinones, Q.J., Staats, J.S., Weinhold, K.J., Grossi, P.M., Laskowitz, D.T., and James, M.L. Coupling hematoma evacuation with immune profiling for analysis of neuroinflammation after primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a pilot study. World Neurosurg. 2022 May;161:162-168 PMCID:PMID:35217228.

Brown, Landon C., Halabi, S., Somarelli, J., Humeniuk, M., Wu, Y., Oyekunle, T., Howard, L., Huang, J., Anand, M., Davies, C., Patel, P., Staats, J., Weinhold, K.J., Harrison, M.R., Zhang, T., George, D.J., and Armstrong, A.J. A phase 2 trial of avelumab in men with aggressive-variant or neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 25(4):762-769, 2022. PMCID: PMC8933335.

Khatri, A., Todd, J.L., Kelly, F.L., Nagler, A., Ji, Z., Jain, V., Gregory, S..G., Weinhold, K.J., and Palmer, S.M. JAK-STAT activation in basal cells contributes to cytotoxic T-cell mediated basal cell death in human chronic lung allograft dusfunction. JCI Insight 8(6) March 22, 2023 PMCID:PMC pending.

Zaffiri, L., Messinger, M., Staats, J.S., Patel, P., Palmer, S.M., Weinhold, K.J., Snyder, L.D., and Luftig, M.A. Evaluation of host cellular responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in adult lung transplant recipients with EBV-associated diseases. J. Med. Virol. 95(4):e28724, 2023.



Woldorff

Marty G. Woldorff

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Dr. Woldorff's main research interest is in the cognitive neuroscience of attention. At each and every moment of our lives, we are bombarded by a welter of sensory information coming at us from a myriad of directions and through our various sensory modalities -- much more than we can fully process. We must continuously select and extract the most important information from this welter of sensory inputs. How the human brain accomplishes this is one of the core challenges of modern cognitive neuroscience. Dr. Woldorff uses a combination of electrophysiological (ERP, MEG) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) methods to study the time course, functional neuroanatomy, and mechanisms of attentional processes. This multimethodological approach is directed along several main lines of research: (1) The influence of attention on sensory and perceptual processing; (2) Cognitive and attentional control mechanisms; (3) The role of attention in multisensory environments; (4) The interactive relationship between attention and reward; and (5) The role of attention in perceptual awareness.

Devinney

Michael Devinney

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology

My work uses translational neuroscience approaches, such as cerebrospinal fluid molecular assays, sleep EEG, cognitive testing, and delirium assessment to identify mechanisms of delirium. Delirium is a syndrome of disrupted attention and consciousness that occurs in ~20% of the >19 million older surgery patients and ~50% of the >5 million intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the United States every year. Delirium is also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD), yet there are no FDA-approved drugs to prevent it, due to a major gap in our understanding of its underlying mechanisms.  Our current work aims to discover potential mechanisms of delirium that could be targeted in future studies. We have recently found that increased blood-brain barrier dysfunction is associated with postoperative delirium, but it is unknown what inflammatory mediators actually cross the disrupted blood-brain barrier to drive delirium. Using mass spectrometry proteomics, we are examining the relationship of proteins and inflammatory markers found in the cerebrospinal fluid 24-hours following surgery with postoperative delirium. We are also interested in strategies that potentially protect the blood-brain barrier following surgery. Since sleep disruptions can cause blood-brain barrier dysfunction, we are conducting a study to determine the efficacy of suvorexant to improve postoperative sleep and reduce delirium severity in older surgical patients. Finally, we are working to extend these investigations to ICU patients, who are often more severely affected by delirium and more frequently develop long-term sequelae such as post-ICU long-term cognitive impairment (that is similar in magnitude to Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias).

Cohen

Harvey Jay Cohen

Walter Kempner Distinguished Professor of Medicine, in the School of Medicine

Dr. Cohen's research program includes clinical research relating to aspects of the pathways to functional decline and reilience with aging, geriatric assessment, and cancer and anemia in the elderly.

Pathways to functional decline are being explored through the NIA funded Claude Pepper Older Americans Independence Center, and includes studies of the contributions of age related physiologic change, in particular changes in inflammatory parameters, comorbid diseases and conditions, environment, genetics, and the interactionas among them. Data are derived from several current studies as well as previously collected data sets from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE), National Long Term Care Survey, and the Chinese Longevity Study (with Dr. Zeng Yi). Previous work has demonstrated the important contributions of age related inflammation and coagulation activation to functional status. He is Co-PI of the Pepper Center Physical Performance Across the LifeSpan (PALS) study, which is a longitudinal cohort study of community dwelling adults from age 30-90+and includes functional measures and biomarkers on inflammation and metabolism.
 
Geriatric assessment approaches have been studied in a number of randomized and controlled studies and work is now concentrating on the application of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment tools to the evaluation and treatment of elderly patients with cancer. This is an extension and continuation of a long standing interest in geriatric oncology. Previous studies have elucidated age-related patterns of disease presentation, treatment approaches, clinical trials, survivorship, quality of life, impact of comrobidities and functional outcomes. Dr. Cohen was co-chair, and now member of the Cancer in the Older Adult Committee of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (ALLIANCE). A number of active studies and ongoing data bases aree being utilized to address these questions.


Anemia in the older adult is being addressed through an NIA funded U01 consortium (Dr. Cohen Co-PI). the current main study is an observational study followed by a pragmatic treatment trial for anemia in older adults with CHF, in collaboration with the Cardiovascular Research Network (CVRN) of the Health services research network (HSRN) 

Mathew

Joseph P. Mathew

Jerry Reves, M.D. Distinguished Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology

Current research interests include:
1. The relationship between white matter patency, functional connectivity (fMRI) and neurocognitive function following cardiac surgery.
2. The relationship between global and regional cortical beta-amyloid deposition and postoperative cognitive decline.
3. The effect of lidocaine infusion upon neurocognitive function following cardiac surgery.
4. The association between genotype and outcome after cardiac surgery.
5. Atrial fibrillation following cardiopulmonary bypass.


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