The Relationship Between Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, Other Bacterial Bloodstream Infections, and Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa.
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BACKGROUND: Country-specific studies in Africa have indicated that Plasmodium falciparum is associated with invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. We conducted a multicenter study in 13 sites in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of iNTS disease, other systemic bacterial infections, and malaria. METHODS: Febrile patients received a blood culture and a malaria test. Isolated bacteria underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the association between iNTS disease and malaria was assessed. RESULTS: A positive correlation between frequency proportions of malaria and iNTS was observed (P = .01; r = 0.70). Areas with higher burden of malaria exhibited higher odds of iNTS disease compared to other bacterial infections (odds ratio [OR], 4.89; 95% CI, 1.61-14.90; P = .005) than areas with lower malaria burden. Malaria parasite positivity was associated with iNTS disease (OR, 2.44; P = .031) and gram-positive bacteremias, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, exhibited a high proportion of coinfection with Plasmodium malaria. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were the predominant NTS serovars (53/73; 73%). Both moderate (OR, 6.05; P = .0001) and severe (OR, 14.62; P < .0001) anemia were associated with iNTS disease. CONCLUSIONS: A positive correlation between iNTS disease and malaria endemicity, and the association between Plasmodium parasite positivity and iNTS disease across sub-Saharan Africa, indicates the necessity to consider iNTS as a major cause of febrile illness in malaria-holoendemic areas. Prevention of iNTS disease through iNTS vaccines for areas of high malaria endemicity, targeting high-risk groups for Plasmodium parasitic infection, should be considered.
Published Version (Please cite this version)
Park, Se Eun, Gi Deok Pak, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, et al. (2016). The Relationship Between Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, Other Bacterial Bloodstream Infections, and Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis, 62 Suppl 1. pp. S23–S31. 10.1093/cid/civ893 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13760.
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I am based in northern Tanzania where I am Site Leader for Duke University’s collaborative research program based at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre and Director of Tanzania Operations for the Duke Global Health Institute. I oversee the design and implementation of research studies on infectious diseases, particularly febrile illness, invasive bacterial disease, HIV-associated opportunistic infections, clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and infectious diseases diagnostics. In addition, I am a medical epidemiologist with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). My CDC work focuses on enteric infection epidemiology and prevention in developing countries, particularly invasive salmonelloses.
Julian Hertz, MD, MSc, is an Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine & Global Health. He graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University and attended medical school at Duke University, where he received the Dean's Merit Scholarship and the Thomas Jefferson Award for leadership. He completed his residency training in emergency medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and his fellowship in Global Health at Duke.
Dr. Hertz's primary interests include global health, implementation science, and undergraduate and graduate medical education. Dr. Hertz's research focuses on using implementation science methods to improve cardiovascular care both locally and globally. His current projects involve developing interventions to improve acute myocardial infarction care in Tanzania, to improve management of hypertension among Tanzanians with HIV, and to improve post-hospital care among patients with multimorbidity in East Africa.
Dr. Hertz has received numerous awards for clinical, educational, and research excellence, including the Duke Emergency Medicine Faculty Teacher of the Year Award, the Duke Emergency Medicine Faculty Clinician of the Year Award, and the Duke Emergency Medicine Faculty Researcher of the Year Award. He has also received the Golden Apple Teaching Award from the Duke medical student body, the Duke Master Clinician/Teacher Award, and the Global Academic Achievement Award from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.
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