Utility of the spinal instability neoplastic score to identify patients with Gorham-Stout disease requiring spine surgery

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Repository Usage Stats


Citation Stats


Background: Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare syndrome presenting with progressive osteolysis which in the spine can lead to cord injury, instability, and deformity. Here, the early spine surgery may prevent catastrophic outcomes. Case Description: A 25-year-old male with GSD involving the T2 to T6 levels presented with acute traumatic kyphoscoliosis at T3 and T4 and left lower extremity paraparesis. The CT scan 4 weeks before this showed progressing osteolysis versus the CT 5 years ago. Unfortunately, the patient underwent delayed treatment resulting in permanent neurological sequelae. Surgery included a laminectomy and vertebrectomy of T3/T4 with instrumented fusion from T1-10. The use of the spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) is a useful tool to prompt early referral to spine surgeons. Conclusion: We recommend using the SINS score in GSD patients who develop spinal lesions to prompt early referral for consideration of surgery.






Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Gui, C, B Rocos, LN Lohkamp, A Cheung, R Bleakney and E Massicotte (2021). Utility of the spinal instability neoplastic score to identify patients with Gorham-Stout disease requiring spine surgery. Surgical Neurology International, 12. pp. 227–227. 10.25259/SNI_311_2021 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/29702.

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Brett Rocos

Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I joined the team at Duke University Health from London, UK, where I was a Consultant Adult and Paediatric Spine Surgeon at Barts Health NHS Trust and Honorary Consultant Senior Lecturer at Queen Mary University of London. I completed my surgical training in in the South West of the UK and at the University of Toronto, and am fellowship trained in adult spine surgery, paediatric spine surgery, orthopaedic trauma surgery, research and healthcare management.

I am driven to support patients at every stage of their care, from clinic assessment, through surgery to discharge. Making sure that every person, adult, child, family or friend understands what’s wrong, helping them to choose the right treatment for them, and what the recovery will be like is an important priority.

My research activity focusses on finding effective new treatments for spinal disorders and bringing them to patients. Focusing on spinal deformity, I have led investigations in the UK, Canada and the USA, and I sit on the Global AO Knowledge Forum for Deformity and the Research Grants Committee at the Scoliosis Research Society. I have lectured in North America and Europe about the treatment of spine disorders for the Scoliosis Research Society, Global Spine Congress, AO Spine and Eurospine, and I have worked hard to produce research that improves the care for spine patients wherever they live. Lastly, I review for several orthopaedic journals and I am Deputy Editor of the Bone and Joint 360, a leading publication with a global readership.

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.