Intraoperative vasoplegia: methylene blue to the rescue!

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2018-02

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Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the efficacy, dosing, and safety of methylene blue (MTB) in perioperative vasoplegic syndrome (VS). RECENT FINDINGS: Vasoplegic syndrome is a state of persistent hypotension with elevated cardiac output, low filling pressures, and low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). It occurs in up to 25% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, can last up to 72 h, and is associated with a high mortality rate. MTB has been found to increase SVR and decrease vasopressor requirements in vasoplegic syndrome by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase, thus limiting the generation of nitric oxide, while inhibiting activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase and preventing vasodilation. MTB has been used in postgraft reperfusion during liver transplantation and anaphylaxis in a limited number of cases. Additionally, this medication has been used in septic shock with promising results, but similar to the cardiac surgical population, the effects of MTB administration on clinical outcomes has yet to be elucidated. SUMMARY: MTB should be considered during vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and usage may be more effective in an early critical window, prior to end-organ hypoperfusion. Other perioperative scenarios of MTB use show promise, but additional studies are required to develop formative conclusions.

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10.1097/ACO.0000000000000548

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McCartney, Sharon L, Lorent Duce and Kamrouz Ghadimi (2018). Intraoperative vasoplegia: methylene blue to the rescue!. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 31(1). pp. 43–49. 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000548 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/15971.

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Scholars@Duke

McCartney

Sharon Lorraine McCartney

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology
Ghadimi

Kamrouz Ghadimi

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

Overview
Dr. Ghadimi is a cardiothoracic anesthesiologist, intensivist (ICU doctor), researcher, educator, and director of the clinical research unit in the Department of Anesthesiology at Duke Health. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed manuscripts, book chapters, online reviews, and editorials. His expertise involves the perioperative and intensive care management of patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery, with a special focus on the treatment of bleeding and inflammation related to shock and mechanical circulatory support and on the modification of pulmonary circulation to optimize end-organ blood flow.

Clinical Education
Dr. Ghadimi is a medical school graduate of Boston University School of Medicine, completed his internship in general surgery at the University of California Irvine Medical Center and Long Beach Veterans Affairs Medical Center and completed clinical anesthesiology residency at the Allegheny Health Network in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He completed advanced clinical fellowship specialization in adult Critical Care Medicine (surgical focus) and Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Expertise
Dr. Ghadimi's expertise and instruction spans across the cardiothoracic operating rooms and cardiothoracic surgical ICU environments. His expertise includes perioperative hemostasis & thrombosis, critical care of the heart or lung transplant recipient, and critical care for the patient on mechanical circulatory support, which may include extracorporeal life support (ECMO) or ventricular assist devices/systems.

Research Education
Dr. Ghadimi is a clinical and translational researcher and holds a Master in Health Sciences (M.H.Sc.) from the Duke-NIH Clinical Research Training Program. 


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