E-Cigarette Use Among Adult Primary Care Patients: Results from a Multisite Study.

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BACKGROUND:Primary care settings provide opportunities to identify electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette) use and to implement strategies for changing tobacco use behavior. However, a better understanding of the extent and associated characteristics of e-cigarette use among primary care patients are needed to inform such efforts. OBJECTIVE:To describe patient demographic and substance use characteristics by e-cigarette use status among a large sample of primary care patients. To examine the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among tobacco users in the sample. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis from a multisite validation study of a substance use screening instrument. PARTICIPANTS:Adult primary care patients aged 18 and older (n = 2000) recruited across 5 primary care clinics in the Eastern USA from 2014 to 2015. MAIN MEASURES:Patients reported past 3-month e-cigarette use, sociodemographics, tobacco use, and other substance use. Current nicotine dependence and DSM-5 criteria for past-year substance use disorders were also assessed. KEY RESULTS:Among the total sample, 7.7% (n = 154) adults reported past 3-month e-cigarette use. Adults who reported e-cigarette use (vs. no use) were more likely to be younger, white, or have frequent tobacco use, nicotine dependence, or past-year illicit drug use/disorders. Among past 3-month tobacco users, 16.3% reported e-cigarette use. Adjusted logistic regression indicated that odds of e-cigarette use were greater among tobacco users who had some college education or more (vs. < high school) or were daily/almost daily tobacco users (vs. not); odds were lower among Blacks/African-Americans (vs. whites). E-cigarette use among tobacco users was associated with increased odds of current nicotine dependence or tobacco use disorder as well as more severe dependence/disorder. CONCLUSIONS:Enhanced surveillance of e-cigarette use among adult tobacco users in primary care, particularly among those who use tobacco frequently, may have implications for helping patients with tobacco cessation using established approaches including behavioral support, pharmacotherapy, or referral to specialized care.





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John, William S, Kiran Grover, Lawrence H Greenblatt, Robert P Schwartz and Li-Tzy Wu (2020). E-Cigarette Use Among Adult Primary Care Patients: Results from a Multisite Study. Journal of general internal medicine, 35(1). pp. 268–275. 10.1007/s11606-019-05488-4 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/19919.

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Lawrence Howard Greenblatt

Professor of Medicine

Dr. Greenblatt focuses his professional efforts in 3 domains.  First, he provides care to a busy general internal medicine panel utilizing an approach that is both patient-centered and evidence-based.  Second, he is an active educator routinely providing clinical teaching to students and residents.   He routinely regularly provides faculty development in teaching and other skills for medical educators across many professions both in Durham and in the Academic Medicine Education Institute in Singapore.  Third, he has a community focus.  He serves as Medical Director for Northern Piedmont Community Care which provides practice support, care management, and population management primarily for Medicaid recipients.  He is currently working on developing systems and policy to improve opioid safety both for Duke Health System and the State of North Carolina.


Li-Tzy Wu

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Education/Training: Pre- and post-doctoral training in mental health service research, psychiatric epidemiology (NIMH T32), and addiction epidemiology (NIDA T32) from Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health (Maryland); Fellow of the NIH Summer Institute on the Design and Conduct of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Director: Duke Community Based Substance Use Disorder Research Program.

Research interests: COVID-19, Opioid misuse, Opioid overdose, Opioid use disorder, Opioid addiction prevention and treatment, Pain and addiction, Chronic diseases and substance use disorders, diabetes, pharmacy-based care models and services, medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD), Drug overdose, Polysubstance use and disorders, cannabis, alcohol, tobacco, hallucinogens, stimulants, e-cigarette, SBIRT (substance use Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment), EHR-based research and intervention, data science, psychometric analysis (IRT), epidemiology of addictions and comorbidity, behavioral health care integration, health services research (mental health disorders, substance use disorders, chronic diseases), nosology, research design, HIV risk behavior. 

FUNDED Research projects (Principal Investigator [PI], Site PI, or Sub-award PI): 
R03: Substance use/dependence (PI).
R21: Treatment use for alcohol use disorders (PI).
R21: Inhalant use & disorders (PI).
R01: MDMA/hallucinogen use/disorders (PI).
R01: Prescription pain reliever (opioids) misuse and use disorders (PI).
R01: Substance use disorders in adolescents (PI).
R21: CTN Substance use diagnoses & treatment (PI).
R33: CTN Substance use diagnoses & treatment (PI).
R01: Evolution of Psychopathology in the Population (ECA Duke site PI).
R01: Substance use disorders and treatment use among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (PI).
UG1: SBIRT in Primary Care (NIDA, PI).
UG1: TAPS Tool, Substance use screening tool validation in primary care (NIDA, PI).
UG1: NIDA CTN Mid-Southern Node (Clinical Trials Network, PI).
UG1: EHR Data Element Study (NIDA, PI).
UG1: Buprenorphine Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration in the Management of Patients With Opioid Use Disorder (NIDA, PI).
PCORI: INSPIRE-Integrated Health Services to Reduce Opioid Use While Managing Chronic Pain (Site PI).
CDC R01: Evaluation of state-mandated acute and post-surgical pain-specific CDC opioid prescribing (Site PI).
Pilot: Measuring Opioid Use Disorders in Secondary Electronic Health Records Data (Carolinas Collaborative Grant: Duke PI).
R21: Developing a prevention model of alcohol use disorder for Pacific Islander young adults (Subaward PI, Investigator).
UG1: Subthreshold Opioid Use Disorder Prevention Trial (NIH HEAL Initiative) (NIDA supplement, CTN-0101, Investigator).
NIDA: A Pilot Study to Permit Opioid Treatment Program Physicians to Prescribe Methadone through Community Pharmacies for their Stable Methadone Patients (NIDA/FRI: Study PI).
UG1: Integrating pharmacy-based prevention and treatment of opioid and other substance use disorders: A survey of pharmacists and stakeholder (NIH HEAL Initiative, NIDA, PI).
UG1: NorthStar Node of the Clinical Trials Network (NIDA, Site PI).
R34: Intervention Development and Pilot Study to Reduce Untreated Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Opioid Use Disorders (Subaward PI, Investigator).
UG1: Optimal Policies to Improve Methadone Maintenance Adherence Longterm (OPTIMMAL Study) (NIDA, Site PI).
R01: Increasing access to opioid use disorder treatment by opening pharmacy-based medication units of opioid treatment programs (NIDA, PI)

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