Conventional Ultrafiltration During Elective Cardiac Surgery and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury.

Abstract

Objective

Conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) serves to hemoconcentrate blood volume to avoid allogeneic blood transfusions. Previous studies have determined CUF volumes as a continuous variable are associated with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery, but optimal weight-indexed volumes that predict AKI have not been described.

Design

Retrospective cohort.

Setting

Single-center university hospital.

Participants

A total of 1,641 consecutive patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery between June 2013 and December 2015.

Interventions

The CUF volume was removed during CPB in all participants as part of routine practice. The authors investigated the association of dichotomized weight-indexed CUF volume removal with postoperative AKI development to provide pragmatic guidance for clinical practice at the authors' institution.

Measurements and main results

Primary outcomes of postoperative AKI were defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria and dichotomized, weight-indexed CUF volumes (mL/kg) were defined by (1) extreme quartiles (Q3) and (2) Youden's criterion that best predicted AKI development. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to test the association of these dichotomized indices with AKI status. Postoperative AKI occurred in 827 patients (50.4%). Higher CUF volumes were associated with AKI development by quartiles (CUF >Q3 = 32.6 v CUF < Q1 = 10.4 mL/kg; odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.19-2.3) and Youden's criterion (CUF ≥ 32.9 v CUF <32.9 mL/kg; OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.21-2.13). Despite similar intraoperative nadir hematocrits among groups (p = 0.8), higher CUF volumes were associated with more allogeneic blood transfusions (p = 0.002) and longer lengths of stay (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Removal of weight-indexed CUF volumes > 32 mL/kg increased the risk for postoperative AKI development. Importantly, CUF volume removal of any amount did not mitigate allogeneic blood transfusion during elective cardiac surgery. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.

Department

Description

Provenance

Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1053/j.jvca.2020.11.036

Publication Info

Manning, Michael W, Yi-Ju Li, Dean Linder, John C Haney, Yi-Hung Wu, Mihai V Podgoreanu, Madhav Swaminathan, Jacob N Schroder, et al. (2021). Conventional Ultrafiltration During Elective Cardiac Surgery and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 35(5). pp. 1310–1318. 10.1053/j.jvca.2020.11.036 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/29718.

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.

Scholars@Duke

Manning

Michael Wayne Manning

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

Dr. Michael W. Manning, MD, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at Duke University Medical Center, within the Divisions of Cardiothoracic and General, Vascular, and Transplant anesthesia. He serves as the director of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery programs and the director of research for the Perioperative Medicine Fellowship at Duke. His clinical practice focuses on high-risk cardiac surgery, Heart, Lung, and Liver transplantation.

Dr. Manning earned a Ph.D. in cardiovascular physiology from the University of Kentucky, where he studied the role of Angiotensin II-mediated inflammation in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms. After graduate school, Dr. Manning remained at the University of Kentucky, earning his MD degree. He completed a year of general surgery residency before switching to anesthesia. Following residency, Dr. 
Manning continued his clinical training at Duke University with a one-year clinical fellowship in Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology and a 2-year research fellowship. He joined the Duke faculty in 2014. 

His current research interests are ERAS centered, specifically in the role of opioid-free anesthesia and goal-directed fluid therapy in cardiac surgery on renal outcomes.

Li

Yi-Ju Li

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

My research interest is in statistical genetics, including statistical method development and its application for understanding the genetic predisposition of human complex diseases. Here is the list of research topics:

  • Statistical genetics: development of family-based association methods for quantitative traits with or without censoring and for detecting X-linked genes for disease risk.  With the availability of next generation sequencing data, we have ongoing projects to develop the association methods for testing rare variants for different phenotypic measures.  
  • Genetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD).
  • Genetic basis of age-at-onset of Alzheimer disease. 
  • Peri-operative genomic studies. Investigate the genetic risk factors for postoperative outcomes of patients underwent non-emergent coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Podgoreanu

Mihai V. Podgoreanu

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

Basic-Translational:
1. Systems biology approaches to modeling perioperative cardiovascular injury and adaptation.
2. Mechanisms of perioperative myocardial injury; functional genomics applied to perioperative myocardial injury.
3. Metabolic consequences of perioperative myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
4. Animal models and comparative genomic approaches to study perioperative myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
5. Functional genomics of vein graft disease.
6. Animal models of vein graft disease.
7. Genetic association studies in perioperative medicine.
8. Clinico-genomic risk prediction models for perioperative and long-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes following cardiac surgery.

Clinical:
9. Intraoperative quantification of tissue perfusion by contrast echocardiography.
10. Use of myocardial tissue deformation indices to characterize perioperative ventricular dysfunction/stunning
11. 3-D echocardiographic evaluation of the right ventricle

Swaminathan

Madhav Swaminathan

Professor of Anesthesiology

My overall goal is to elucidate mechanisms of and risk factors for perioperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing heart surgery with emphasis the role of early recovery of kidney function. A special area of interest is the phenomenon of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. We have successfully developed an algorithm to help simplify the detection of diastolic dysfunction using echocardiography during heart surgery. A future goal is to explore interventions that help prevent or reduce the severity of diastolic dysfunction postoperatively.

Schroder

Jacob Niall Schroder

Assistant Professor of Surgery
Milano

Carmelo Alessio Milano

Joseph W. and Dorothy W. Beard Distinguished Professor of Experimental Surgery
Welsby

Ian James Welsby

Professor of Anesthesiology

As a practicing cardiothoracic anesthesiologist, I have contributed to the better understanding of the management and of perioperative thrombosis (particularly HIT). This has been as a Duke site PI for the Rare Thrombotic Diseases Consortium led by Dr T.L Ortel and a clinical collaborator with the basic and translational science approach to HIT led by Dr G Arepally. I have also championed novel approaches to dealing with perioperative HIT such as plasmaperesis.

Similarly, I have been a local leader in establishing management of transfusion approaches to major cardiac surgery including the novel introduction of autologous plateletpheresis to limit exposure to allogeneic platelet transfusions in this highly transfused population, identifying the transfusion requirements during thoracic aortic reconstruction and promoting use of a lower dose of rFVIIa use in this population, changing established clinical practice.

My research interests focus on perioperative transfusion and hematology concerns. Recently, Dr Kor (Mayo Clinic) and I received a multiple PI R-01 award to evaluate point-of-care/bedside washing of packed red blood cells to reduce perioperative lung injury. This novel repurposing of commonly available “cell-saver” technology is, for most surgical cases, the only practical means of delivering a washed product, and promises to be a critical advancement in perioperative transfusion medicine. I also have a longstanding interest in the rejuvenation of RBCs to normalize oxygen delivery capacity of transfused RBCs. Such a development will be of tremendous importance to transfusion practice, particularly for highly transfused populations and with current threats to blood banking inventory. 

In summary, I have dedicated my research career to improving the outcome of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, understanding perioperative coagulopathy, and optimizing transfusion practice. 

Stafford-Smith

Mark Stafford-Smith

Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology

My research interests are in the area of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology. The main focus of my research is towards the understanding and prevention of acute kidney injury after cardiac and other major surgeries. Secondary interests include the study of analgesic strategies after cardiothoracic surgical procedures, performance of clinical trials, and perioperative transfusion and hemostasis.

Ghadimi

Kamrouz Ghadimi

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

Overview
Dr. Ghadimi is a cardiothoracic anesthesiologist, intensivist (ICU doctor), researcher, educator, and director of the clinical research unit in the Department of Anesthesiology at Duke Health. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed manuscripts, book chapters, online reviews, and editorials. His expertise involves the perioperative and intensive care management of patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery, with a special focus on the treatment of bleeding and inflammation related to shock and mechanical circulatory support and on the modification of pulmonary circulation to optimize end-organ blood flow.

Clinical Education
Dr. Ghadimi is a medical school graduate of Boston University School of Medicine, completed his internship in general surgery at the University of California Irvine Medical Center and Long Beach Veterans Affairs Medical Center and completed clinical anesthesiology residency at the Allegheny Health Network in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He completed advanced clinical fellowship specialization in adult Critical Care Medicine (surgical focus) and Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Expertise
Dr. Ghadimi's expertise and instruction spans across the cardiothoracic operating rooms and cardiothoracic surgical ICU environments. His expertise includes perioperative hemostasis & thrombosis, critical care of the heart or lung transplant recipient, and critical care for the patient on mechanical circulatory support, which may include extracorporeal life support (ECMO) or ventricular assist devices/systems.

Research Education
Dr. Ghadimi is a clinical and translational researcher and holds a Master in Health Sciences (M.H.Sc.) from the Duke-NIH Clinical Research Training Program. 


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