Ratios of head circumference to ventricular size vary over time and predict eventual need for CSF diversion in intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity.



Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of prematurity can lead to hydrocephalus, sometimes necessitating permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. We sought to characterize the relationship between head circumference (HC) and ventricular size in IVH over time to evaluate the clinical utility of serial HC measurements as a metric in determining the need for CSF diversion.


We included preterm infants with IVH born between January 2000 and May 2020. Three measures of ventricular size were obtained: ventricular index (VI), Evan's ratio (ER), and frontal occipital head ratio (FOHR). The Pearson correlations (r) between the initial (at birth) paired measurements of HC and ventricular size were reported. Multivariable longitudinal regression models were fit to examine the HC:ventricle size ratio, adjusting for the age of the infant, IVH grade (I/II vs. III/IV), need for CSF diversion, and sex.


A total of 639 patients with an average gestational age of 27.5 weeks were included. IVH grade I/II and grade III/IV patients had a positive correlation between initial HC and VI (r = 0.47, p < 0.001 and r = 0.48, p < 0.001, respectively). In our longitudinal models, patients with a low-grade IVH (I/II) had an HC:VI ratio 0.52 higher than those with a high-grade IVH (p-value < 0.001). Patients with low-grade IVH had an HC:ER ratio 12.94 higher than those with high-grade IVH (p-value < 0.001). Patients with low-grade IVH had a HC:FOHR ratio 12.91 higher than those with high-grade IVH (p-value < 0.001). Infants who did not require CSF diversion had an HC:VI ratio 0.47 higher than those who eventually did (p < 0.001). Infants without CSF diversion had an HC:ER ratio 16.53 higher than those who received CSF diversion (p < 0.001). Infants without CSF diversion had an HC:FOHR ratio 15.45 higher than those who received CSF diversion (95% CI (11.34, 19.56), p < 0.001).


There is a significant difference in the ratio of HC:VI, HC:ER, and HC:FOHR size between patients with high-grade IVH and low-grade IVH. Likewise, there is a significant difference in HC:VI, HC:ER, and HC:FOHR between those who did and did not have CSF diversion. The routine assessments of both head circumference and ventricle size by ultrasound are important clinical tools in infants with IVH of prematurity.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Venkatraman, Vishal, Stephen C Harward, Srijan Bhasin, Kylie Calderon, Sage L Atkins, Beiyu Liu, Hui-Jie Lee, Shein-Chung Chow, et al. (2024). Ratios of head circumference to ventricular size vary over time and predict eventual need for CSF diversion in intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, 40(3). pp. 673–684. 10.1007/s00381-023-06176-9 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/30488.

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Stephen Harward

Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery

Beiyu Liu

Biostatistician III

Overview: Beiyu currently collaborates with clinicians, residents and fellows in the Department of Surgery, Department of Dermatology, and Pharmacy. He has extensive biomedical research experience and his specific areas of interest include regression analysis, predictive modeling, survival analysis, and observational studies.


Shein-Chung Chow

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

My research interest includes statistical methodology development and application in the area of biopharmaceutical/clinical statistics such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, clinical trials, bridging studies, medical devices, and translational research/medicine. Most recently, I am interested in statistical methodology development for the use of adaptive design methods in clinical trials and methodology development for assessment of biosimilarity of follow-on biologics. In addition, I am also interested in methodology development for statistical evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical trials.


Herbert Edgar Fuchs

Professor of Neurosurgery

Clinical neuro-oncology research including collaborations studying molecular genetics of childhood brain tumors.
Potential role of the free electron laser in surgery of pediatric brain tumors. Current work includes animal models with human brain tumor xenografts in preclinical studies.
Collaboration with the neurooncology laboratory of Dr. Darell Bigner in preclinical studies of new therapeutic agents.

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