Projection of Eye Disease Burden in Singapore.



Singapore's ageing population is likely to see an increase in chronic eye conditions in the future. This study aimed to estimate the burden of eye diseases among resident Singaporeans stratified for age and ethnicity by 2040.

Materials and methods

Prevalence data on myopia, epiretinal membrane (ERM), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), age macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, glaucoma and refractive error (RE) by age cohorts and educational attainment from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study were applied to population estimates from the Singapore population model.


All eye conditions are projected to increase by 2040. Myopia and RE will remain the most prevalent condition, at 2.393 million (2.32 to 2.41 million) cases, representing a 58% increase from 2015. It is followed by cataract and ERM, with 1.33 million (1.31 to 1.35 million), representing an 81% increase, and 0.54 million (0.53 to 0.549 million) cases representing a 97% increase, respectively. Eye conditions that will see the greatest increase from 2015 to 2040 in the Chinese are: DR (112%), glaucoma (100%) and ERM (91.4%). For Malays, DR (154%), ERM (136%), and cataract (122%) cases are expected to increase the most while for Indians, ERM (112%), AMD (101%), and cataract (87%) are estimated to increase the most in the same period.


Results indicate that the burden for all eye diseases is expected to increase significantly into the future, but at different rates. These projections can facilitate the planning efforts of both policymakers and healthcare providers in the development and provision of infrastructure and resources to adequately meet the eye care needs of the population. By stratifying for age and ethnicity, high risk groups may be identified and targeted interventions may be implemented.







David Bruce Matchar

Professor of Medicine

My research relates to clinical practice improvement - from the development of clinical policies to their implementation in real world clinical settings. Most recently my major content focus has been cerebrovascular disease. Other major clinical areas in which I work include the range of disabling neurological conditions, cardiovascular disease, and cancer prevention.
Notable features of my work are: (1) reliance on analytic strategies such as meta-analysis, simulation, decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis; (2) a balancing of methodological rigor the needs of medical professionals; and (3) dependence on interdisciplinary groups of experts.
This approach is best illustrated by the Stroke Prevention Patient Outcome Research Team (PORT), for which I served as principal investigator. Funded by the AHCPR, the PORT involved 35 investigators at 13 institutions. The Stroke PORT has been highly productive and has led to a stroke prevention project funded as a public/private partnership by the AHCPR and DuPont Pharma, the Managing Anticoagulation Services Trial (MAST). MAST is a practice improvement trial in 6 managed care organizations, focussing on optimizing anticoagulation for individuals with atrial fibrillation.
I serve as consultant in the general area of analytic strategies for clinical policy development, as well as for specific projects related to stroke (e.g., acute stroke treatment, management of atrial fibrillation, and use of carotid endarterectomy.) I have worked with AHCPR (now AHRQ), ACP, AHA, AAN, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, NSA, WHO, and several pharmaceutical companies.
Key Words: clinical policy, disease management, stroke, decision analysis, clinical guidelines

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