Examining the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a post-9/11 U.S. military veteran sample.


The present study examined the structural validity of the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a large sample of U.S. veterans with military service since September 11, 2001. Participants (N = 1,981) completed the 25-item CD-RISC, a structured clinical interview and a self-report questionnaire assessing psychiatric symptoms. The study sample was randomly divided into two subsamples: an initial sample (Sample 1: n = 990) and a replication sample (Sample 2: n = 991). Findings derived from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) did not support the five-factor analytic structure as initially suggested in Connor and Davidson's instrument validation study. Although parallel analyses indicated a two-factor structural model, we tested one to six factor solutions for best model fit using confirmatory factor analysis. Results supported a two-factor model of resilience, composed of adaptability- (8 items) and self-efficacy-themed (6 items) items; however, only the adaptability-themed factor was found to be consistent with our view of resilience-a factor of protection against the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure. The adaptability-themed factor may be a useful measure of resilience for post-9/11 U.S. military veterans.





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Publication Info

Green, Kimberly T, Laura C Hayward, Ann M Williams, Paul A Dennis, Brandon C Bryan, Katherine H Taber, Education and Clinical Center Workgroup Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Jonathan RT Davidson, et al. (2014). Examining the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a post-9/11 U.S. military veteran sample. Assessment, 21(4). pp. 443–451. 10.1177/1073191114524014 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13044.

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Paul Anthony Dennis

Associate Professor in Population Health Sciences

Developmental psychologist, statistician, and data scientist. Research focused on cardiovascular risk associated with psychiatric illness and trauma exposure, intraindivdiual variability in symptoms and affect, and the use of mobile apps and devices for health and behavior monitoring and interventions. Interest in longitudinal and repeated-measures analyses, mediation analyses, machine learning, and applications to administrative healthcare data.

Jonathan R.T. Davidson

Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Currently, my research focuses upon the theoretical aspects of homeopathy and its clinical utilization, as well as the broader field of alternative (complementary) medicine. this is a field which has traditionally been overlooked as a legitimate scientific discipline. Other areas of activity are as in the past, i.e., clinical treatment, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress, social phobia, other anxiety status, and depression. These are illustrated by recent publications on treatment, epidemiology, health service utilization and quality of life in social phobia and PTSD, drug treatment of panic disorder. Magnetic resonance studies of social phobia have been completed and further studies are planned.


Jean Crowell Beckham

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Interest in assessment and treatment of trauma, particularly as occurs for both women and men during military service; focus in treatment outcome of differential and collective contribution for psychopharmacological and behavioral interventions in PTSD populations; long term physical health effects of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.


Patrick Shields Calhoun

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

I specialize in the assessment and treatment of the psychological and behavioral sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) including the use of cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce PTSD symptoms, aggression, and substance misuse.

 Research interests

  • The psychological, behavioral, and health consequences of traumatic stress
  • Health services research related to PTSD and associated behavioral difficulties
  • Identification of innovative health behavior change interventions to reduce smoking, alcohol, and drug misuse
  • Implementation Science
  • Psychometric assessment and methodology

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