A database of 40 patient-based computational models for benchmarking organ dose estimates in CT.

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Repository Usage Stats


Citation Stats


PURPOSE:Patient radiation burden in CT can best be characterized through risk estimates derived from organ doses. Organ doses can be estimated by Monte Carlo simulations of the CT procedures on computational phantoms assumed to emulate the patients. However, the results are subject to uncertainties related to how accurately the patient and CT procedure are modeled. Different methods can lead to different results. This paper, based on decades of organ dosimetry research, offers a database of CT scans, scan specifics, and organ doses computed using a validated Monte Carlo simulation of each patient and acquisition. It is aimed that the database can serve as means to benchmark different organ dose estimation methods against a benchmark dataset. ACQUISITION AND VALIDATION METHODS:Organ doses were estimated for 40 adult patients (22 female, 18 female) who underwent Chest and Abdominopelvic CT examinations. Patient-based computational models were created for each patient including 26 organs for female and 25 organs for male cases. A Monte Carlo code, previously validated experimentally, was applied to calculate organ doses under constant and two modulated tube current conditions. DATA FORMAT AND USAGE NOTES:The generated database reports organ dose values for Chest and Abdominopelvic examinations per patient and imaging condition. Patient information and images and scan specifications (energy spectrum, bowtie filter specification, and tube current profiles) are provided. The database is available at publicly accessible digital repositories. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS:Consistency in patient risk estimation, and associated justification and optimization requires accuracy and consistency in organ dose estimation. The database provided in this paper is a helpful tool to benchmark different organ dose estimation methodologies to facilitate comparisons, assess uncertainties, and improve assessment of risk of CT scans based on organ dose.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Samei, Ehsan, Francesco Ria, Xiaoyu Tian and Paul W Segars (2020). A database of 40 patient-based computational models for benchmarking organ dose estimates in CT. Medical physics. 10.1002/mp.14373 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/21176.

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Ehsan Samei

Reed and Martha Rice Distinguished Professor of Radiology

Dr. Ehsan Samei, PhD, DABR, FAAPM, FSPIE, FAIMBE, FIOMP, FACR is a Persian-American medical physicist. He is the Reed and Martha Rice Distinguished Professor of Radiology, and Professor of Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering at Duke University. He serves as the Chief Imaging Physicist for Duke University Health System, the Director of the Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories and the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials (CVIT), and co-PI of one the five Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (CERSI), Triangle CERSI. He is certified by the American Board of Radiology, recognized as a Distinguished Investigator by the Academy of Radiology Research, and awarded Fellow by five professional organization. He founded/co-founded the Duke Medical Physics Program, the Duke Imaging Physics Residency Program, the Duke Clinical Imaging Physics Group, the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials, and the Society of Directors of Academic Medical Physics Programs (SDAMPP). He has held senior leadership positions in the AAPM, SPIE, SDAMPP, and RSNA, including election to the presidency of the SEAAPM (2010-2011), SDAMPP (2011), and AAPM (2023).

Dr. Samei’s scientific expertise include x-ray imaging, theoretical imaging models, simulation methods, and experimental techniques in medical image formation, quantification, and perception.  His research aims to bridge the gap between scientific scholarship and clinical practice, in the meaningful realization of translational research, and in clinical processes that are informed by scientific evidence. He has advanced image quality and safety metrics and radiometrics that are clinically relevant and that can be used to design, optimize, and monitor interpretive and quantitative performance of imaging techniques. These have been implemented in advanced imaging performance characterization, procedural optimization, and clinical dose and quality analytics. His most recent research interests have been virtual clinical trial across a broad spectrum of oncologic, pulmonary, cardiac, and vascular diseases, and developing methodological advances that provide smart fusions of principle-informed and AI-based, data-informed approaches to scientific inquiry.

Dr. Samei has mentored over 140 trainees (graduate and postgraduate). He has >1400 scientific publications including >360 referred journal articles, ~600 conference presentations, and 4 books. Citations to his work is reflected in an h-index of 74 and a Weighted Relative Citation Ratio of 613. His laboratory of over 20 researchers has been supported continuously over two decades by 44 extramural grants, culminating in a NIH Program Project grant in 2021 to establish the national Center for Virtual Imaging Trials (CVIT), joining a small number of prominent Biomedical Technology Research Centers across the nation. In 2023, he, along with 3 other PIs, was awarded to lead one of five national Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (Triangle CERSI) by the FDA.


Francesco Ria

Assistant Professor of Radiology

Dr. Francesco Ria is a medical physicist and he serves as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Radiology. Francesco has an extensive expertise in the assessment of procedure performances in radiology. In particular, his research activities focus on the simultaneous evaluation of radiation dose and image quality in vivo in computed tomography providing a comprehensive evaluation of radiological exams. Moreover, Francesco is developing and investigating novel mathematical models that, uniquely in the radiology field, can incorporate a comprehensive and quantitative risk-to-benefit assessment of the procedures; he is continuing to apply his expertise towards the definition of new patient specific risk metrics, and in the assessment of image quality in vivo also using state-of-the-art imaging technology, such as photon counting computed tomography scanners, and machine learning reconstruction algorithms.

Dr. Ria is a member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine task group 392 (Investigation and Quality Control of Automatic Exposure Control System in CT), of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Public Education working group (WGATE), and of the Italian Association of Medical Physics task group Dose Monitoring in Diagnostic Imaging.

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.