Silver toxicity across salinity gradients: the role of dissolved silver chloride species (AgCl x ) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) early life-stage toxicity.
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The influence of salinity on Ag toxicity was investigated in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) early life-stages. Embryo mortality was significantly reduced as salinity increased and Ag(+) was converted to AgCl(solid). However, as salinity continued to rise (>5 ‰), toxicity increased to a level at least as high as observed for Ag(+) in deionized water. Rather than correlating with Ag(+), Fundulus embryo toxicity was better explained (R(2) = 0.96) by total dissolved Ag (Ag(+), AgCl2 (-), AgCl3 (2-), AgCl4 (3-)). Complementary experiments were conducted with medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos to determine if this pattern was consistent among evolutionarily divergent euryhaline species. Contrary to Fundulus data, medaka toxicity data were best explained by Ag(+) concentrations (R(2) = 0.94), suggesting that differing ionoregulatory physiology may drive observed differences. Fundulus larvae were also tested, and toxicity did increase at higher salinities, but did not track predicted silver speciation. Alternatively, toxicity began to increase only at salinities above the isosmotic point, suggesting that shifts in osmoregulatory strategy at higher salinities might be an important factor. Na(+) dysregulation was confirmed as the mechanism of toxicity in Ag-exposed Fundulus larvae at both low and high salinities. While Ag uptake was highest at low salinities for both Fundulus embryos and larvae, uptake was not predictive of toxicity.
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1007/s10646-016-1665-3
Publication InfoArnold, MC; Auffan, M; Bone, AJ; Di Giulio, RT; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Lindberg, TT; ... Wiesner, Mark (2016). Silver toxicity across salinity gradients: the role of dissolved silver chloride species (AgCl x ) in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) early life-stage toxicity. Ecotoxicology, 25(6). pp. 1105-1118. 10.1007/s10646-016-1665-3. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10161/12415.
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Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Professor Heileen (Helen) Hsu-Kim is an environmental engineer who specializes in environmental aquatic chemistry and geochemistry. Her research tackles problems related to pollutant metals and the biogeochemical processes that alter their distribution in water, soil, and air. The applications of this work include environmental remediation technologies, the impacts of energy production on water resources, global environmental health, and the environmental implications and applications of nanotec
James B. Duke Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Wiesner's research interests include membrane processes, nanostructured materials, transport and fate of nanomaterials in the environment, colloidal and interfacial processes, and environmental systems analysis.
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