Hallucinogen-related disorders in a national sample of adolescents: the influence of ecstasy/MDMA use.
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To present the prevalence and correlates of hallucinogen use disorders (HUDs: abuse or dependence) and subthreshold dependence.The study sample included adolescents aged 12-17 years (N=55,286) who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2004-2006). Data were collected with a combination of computer-assisted personal interviewing and audio computer-assisted self-interviewing.The overall prevalence of HUDs among adolescents was low (<1%). However, more than one in three (38.5%) MDMA users and nearly one in four (24.1%) users of other hallucinogens reported HUD symptoms. MDMA users were more likely than users of other hallucinogens to meet criteria for hallucinogen dependence: 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.24-14.81) vs. 3.5% (95% CI: 2.22-5.43). Compared with hallucinogen use only, subthreshold dependence was associated with being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.8 [95% CI: 1.08-2.89]), ages 12-13 years (AOR=3.4 [1.64-7.09]), use of hallucinogens > or = 52 days (AOR=2.4 [1.66-6.92]), and alcohol use disorder (AOR=1.8 [1.21-2.77]). Compared with subthreshold dependence, abuse was associated with mental health service use (AOR=1.7 [1.00-3.00]) and opioid use disorder (AOR=4.9 [1.99-12.12]); dependence was associated with MDMA use (AOR=2.2 [1.05-4.77]), mental health service use (AOR=2.9 [1.34-6.06]), and opioid use disorder (AOR=2.6 [1.01-6.90]). MDMA users had a higher prevalence of most other substance use disorders than users of non-hallucinogen drugs.Adolescent MDMA users appear to be particularly at risk for exhibiting hallucinogen dependence and other substance use disorders.
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Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.04.014
Publication InfoWu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Weiss, Roger D; & Blazer, Dan G (2009). Hallucinogen-related disorders in a national sample of adolescents: the influence of ecstasy/MDMA use. Drug and alcohol dependence, 104(1-2). pp. 156-166. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.04.014. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/20003.
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J. P. Gibbons Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry
I am currently semi-retired. Most of my recent work has been focused on roles with the National Academy of Medicine (former Institute of Medicine). I have chaired three committees during the past four years, one on the mental health and substance use workforce, one on cognitive aging, and one on hearing loss in adults. I currently also chair the Board on the Health of Select Populations for the National Academies. In the past I have been PI on a number of research
Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Education/Training: Pre- and post-doctoral training in mental health service research, psychiatric epidemiology (NIMH T32), and addiction epidemiology (NIDA T32) from Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health (Maryland); Fellow of the NIH Summer Institute on the Design and Conduct of Randomized Clinical Trials.Director: Duke Community Based Substance Use Disorder Research Program.Research interests: COVID-19, Opioid misuse, Opioid overdose, Opioid use disorder
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