Increased predominance of HIV-1 CRF01_AE and its recombinants in the Philippines.

Abstract

The growth rate of new HIV infections in the Philippines was the fastest of any countries in the Asia-Pacific region between 2010 and 2016. To date, HIV-1 subtyping results in the Philippines have been determined by characterizing only partial viral genome sequences. It is not known whether recombination occurs in the majority of unsequenced genome regions. Near-full-length genome (NFLG) sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes from plasma samples collected between 2015 and 2017 from 23 newly diagnosed infected individuals in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the newly characterized sequences were CRF01_AE (14), subtype B (3), CRF01/B recombinants (5) and a CRF01/CRF07/B recombinant (1). All 14 CRF01_AE formed a tight cluster, suggesting that they were derived from a single introduction. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for CRF01_AE in the Philippines was 1995 (1992-1998), about 10-15 years later than that of CRF01_AE in China and Thailand. All five CRF01/B recombinants showed distinct recombination patterns, suggesting ongoing recombination between the two predominant circulating viruses. The identification of partial CRF07_BC sequences in one CRF01/CRF07/B recombinant, not reported previously in the Philippines, indicated that CRF07_BC may have been recently introduced into that country from China, where CRF07_BC is prevalent. Our results show that the major epidemic strains may have shifted to an increased predominance of CRF01_AE and its recombinants, and that other genotypes such as CRF07_BC may have been introduced into the Philippines.

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Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1099/jgv.0.001198

Publication Info

Chen, Yue, Bhavna Hora, Todd DeMarco, Regina Berba, Heidi Register, Sylvia Hood, Meredith Carter, Mars Stone, et al. (2019). Increased predominance of HIV-1 CRF01_AE and its recombinants in the Philippines. The Journal of general virology. 10.1099/jgv.0.001198 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/18041.

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Denny

Thomas Norton Denny

Professor in Medicine

Thomas N. Denny, MSc, M.Phil, is the Chief Operating Officer of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute (DHVI), Associate Dean for Duke Research and Discovery @RTP, and a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine at Duke University Medical Center. He is also an Affiliate Member of the Duke Global Health Institute. Previously, he served on the Health Sector Advisory Council of the Duke University Fuquay School of Business. Prior to joining Duke, he was an Associate Professor of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine and Pediatrics, Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine and Community Health and Assistant Dean for Research in Health Policy at the New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey. He has served on numerous committees for the NIH over the last two decades and currently is the principal investigator of an NIH portfolio in excess of 65 million dollars. Mr. Denny was a 2002-2003 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Fellow at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM). As a fellow, he served on the US Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee with legislation/policy responsibilities in global AIDS, bioterrorism, clinical trials/human subject protection and vaccine related-issues.

As the Chief Operating Officer of the DHVI, Mr. Denny has senior oversight of the DHVI research portfolio and the units/teams that support the DHVI mission. He has extensive international experience and previously was a consultant to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) project to oversee the development of an HIV and Public Health Center of Excellence laboratory network in Guyana. In September 2004, the IOM appointed him as a consultant to their Board on Global Health Committee studying the options for overseas placement of U.S. health professionals and the development of an assessment plan for activities related to the 2003 PEPFAR legislative act. In the 1980s, Mr. Denny helped establish a small laboratory in the Republic of Kalmykia (former Soviet Union) to improve the care of children with HIV/AIDS and served as a Board Member of the Children of Chernobyl Relief Fund Foundation. In 2005, Mr. Denny was named a consulting medical/scientific officer to the WHO Global AIDS Program in Geneva. He has also served as program reviewers for the governments of the Netherlands and South Africa as well as an advisor to several U.S. biotech companies. He currently serves as the Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for Grid Biosciences.

Mr. Denny has authored and co-authored more than 200 peer-reviewed papers and serves on the editorial board of Communications in Cytometry and Journal of Clinical Virology. He holds an M.Sc in Molecular and Biomedical Immunology from the University of East London and a degree in Medical Law (M.Phil) from the Institute of Law and Ethics in Medicine, School of Law, University of Glasgow. In 1991, he completed a course of study in Strategic Management at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. In 1993, he completed the Program for Advanced Training in Biomedical Research Management at Harvard School of Public Health. In December 2005, he was inducted as a Fellow into the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, the oldest medical society in the US.

While living in New Jersey, Mr. Denny was active in his community, gaining additional experience from two publicly elected positions. In 2000, Mr. Denny was selected by the New Jersey League of Municipalities to Chair the New Jersey Community Mental Health Citizens’ Advisory Board and Mental Health Planning Council as a gubernatorial appointment.


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