Inflammation and the reciprocal production of granulocytes and lymphocytes in bone marrow.

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The coordinated production of leukocytes in bone marrow is crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inflammation alters normal leukocyte production by promoting granulopoiesis over lymphopoiesis, a response that supports the reactive neutrophilia that follows infection. Here we demonstrate that this specialization for granulopoiesis is determined by inflammation-induced reductions of growth and retention factors, most significantly stem cell factor and CXCL12, which act preferentially to inhibit lymphoid development. These hierarchical effects suggest that the normal equilibrium of leukocyte production in bone marrow is determined by lymphopoiesis' higher demand for specific growth factors and/or retention signals. Inflammation regulates this balance by reducing growth factors that have less impact on developing neutrophils than lymphocytes. We demonstrate that granulopoiesis and lymphopoiesis are coupled specifically in the bone marrow by development in a common niche and propose that the leukopoietic equilibrium is specified by limiting amounts of developmental resources.





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Ueda, Yoshihiro, Motonari Kondo and Garnett Kelsoe (2005). Inflammation and the reciprocal production of granulocytes and lymphocytes in bone marrow. J Exp Med, 201(11). pp. 1771–1780. 10.1084/jem.20041419 Retrieved from

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Garnett H. Kelsoe

James B. Duke Distinguished Professor of Immunology
  1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes.
    2. The germinal center reaction and mechanisms for clonal selection and self - tolerance. The origins of autoimmunity.
    3. Interaction of innate- and adaptive immunity and the role of inflammation in lymphoid organogenesis.
    4. The role of secondary V(D)J gene rearrangment in lymphocyte development and malignancies.
    5. Mathematical modeling of immune responses, DNA motifs, collaborations in bioinformatics.
    6. Humoral immunity to influenza and HIV-1.

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