Patient-informed modelling of hepatic contrast dynamics in contrast-enhanced CT imaging


PURPOSE Iodinated contrast agents are commonly used in CT imaging to enhance tissue contrast. Consistency in contrast enhancement (CE) is critical in radiological diagnosis. Contrast material circulation in individual patients is affected by factors such as patient body habitus and anatomy leading to significant variability in organ contrast enhancement, image quality, and dose. Toward the goal of improving CE consistency in clinical populations, in this work we developed a contrast dynamics model to predict CT HU enhancement of liver parenchyma in abdominopelvic CE CT scans.

METHOD AND MATERIALS This study included 700 adult abdominopelvic contrast CT exams performed in 2014-2018 using two scanner models from two vendors. Each CT image was segmented using a deep learning-based segmentation algorithm and the hepatic parenchyma HU values were acquired from the segmentations. A two-layer neural network-based algorithm was used to identify the relationship between patient attributes (height, weight, BMI, age, sex), scan parameters (slice thickness, scanner model), contrast injection protocols (bolus volume, injection-to-scan wait time), and the liver HU CE. We randomly selected 60% studies for training, 10% validation, and 30% for testing the accuracy. The training output was the extracted HU values. The goodness-of-fit of the model was evaluated in terms of R^2, Adjusted R^2, Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Squared Error (MSE) between the model prediction and ground truth. In addition, the generalizability of the model was evaluated by comparing the R^2 in the training data (leave-one-out validation) and the testing data.

RESULTS This preliminary model has an 0.51 R^2, 0.40 adjusted R^2, 10.0 HU MAE, 159.1 HU MSE, 0.6±12.8 HU Mean Error, and 2.5 HU Median Error on test data. For training data, the model has 0.59 R^2, 0.56 Adjusted R^2, and 0.5 predicted R^2. The close R^2 between testing and training data results indicate a reasonable generalizability.

CONCLUSION Results showed considerable predictability of liver CE from patient attributes, scanning parameters, and contrast administration protocol. We envision to expand the model to include other major organs toward a comprehensive predictive model.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION A contrast dynamics model can be an essential tool to personalize contrast-enhanced CT protocol and to improve the consistency of contrast enhancement across different patients in diagnostics imaging.






Published Version (Please cite this version)




Hananiel Setiawan


Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Medical Physics
For my Medical Physics PhD dissertation research, I studied contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) imaging, with the goal of quantifying, managing, mitigating, monitoring, and optimizing variability of the protocol. I am looking forward to be applying physics knowledge and technique to the field of medicine.

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<![endif]-->Prior to joining Duke, the majority of my undergraduate research projects were in nuclear physics at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. I also participated in an astrophysics NSF-REU at Northwestern University, a US DOE-SULI in accelerator physics at SLAC National Laboratory (Stanford University), and a particle physics research abroad at Universität Zürich in 2017.

Educational Background
Doctor of Philosophy
Medical Physics, Diagnostic Imaging
Duke University (Durham, NC, USA) 2017-2023

Bachelor of Science
Physics, Honors
Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI, USA) 2014-2017

Associate of Science
Mathematics and Engineering Physics
Lansing Community College (Lansing, MI, USA) 2012-2014

Service to Duke
Vice President of Advocacy, Graduate and Professional Student Government 2021-2022
Director of Operations, Graduate and Professional Student Council 2019-2020
Student Member, External Engagement Committee of the Duke University Board of Trustees 2022-2023
Member, the Advisory Committee on Investment Responsibility 2022-2023
Board Member, Duke Chapel National Advisory Board 2018-Present
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Francesco Ria

Assistant Professor of Radiology

Dr. Francesco Ria is a medical physicist and he serves as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Radiology. Francesco has an extensive expertise in the assessment of procedure performances in radiology. In particular, his research activities focus on the simultaneous evaluation of radiation dose and image quality in vivo in computed tomography providing a comprehensive evaluation of radiological exams. Moreover, Francesco is developing and investigating novel mathematical models that, uniquely in the radiology field, can incorporate a comprehensive and quantitative risk-to-benefit assessment of the procedures; he is continuing to apply his expertise towards the definition of new patient specific risk metrics, and in the assessment of image quality in vivo also using state-of-the-art imaging technology, such as photon counting computed tomography scanners, and machine learning reconstruction algorithms.

Dr. Ria is a member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine task group 392 (Investigation and Quality Control of Automatic Exposure Control System in CT), of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Public Education working group (WGATE), and of the Italian Association of Medical Physics task group Dose Monitoring in Diagnostic Imaging.


Ehsan Abadi

Assistant Professor in Radiology

Ehsan Abadi, PhD is an imaging scientist at Duke University. He serves as an Assistant Professor in the departments of Radiology and Electrical & Computer Engineering, a faculty member in the Medical Physics Graduate Program and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, and a co-Lead in the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials. Ehsan’s research focuses on quantitative imaging and optimization, CT imaging, lung diseases, computational human modeling, and medical imaging simulation. He is actively involved in developing computational anthropomorphic models with various diseases such as COPD, and scanner-specific simulation platforms (e.g., DukeSim) for imaging systems. Currently, his work is centered on identifying and optimizing imaging systems to ensure accurate and precise quantifications of lung diseases.


Ehsan Samei

Reed and Martha Rice Distinguished Professor of Radiology

Dr. Ehsan Samei, PhD, DABR, FAAPM, FSPIE, FAIMBE, FIOMP, FACR is a Persian-American medical physicist. He is the Reed and Martha Rice Distinguished Professor of Radiology, and Professor of Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering at Duke University. He serves as the Chief Imaging Physicist for Duke University Health System, the Director of the Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories and the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials (CVIT), and co-PI of one the five Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (CERSI), Triangle CERSI. He is certified by the American Board of Radiology, recognized as a Distinguished Investigator by the Academy of Radiology Research, and awarded Fellow by five professional organization. He founded/co-founded the Duke Medical Physics Program, the Duke Imaging Physics Residency Program, the Duke Clinical Imaging Physics Group, the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials, and the Society of Directors of Academic Medical Physics Programs (SDAMPP). He has held senior leadership positions in the AAPM, SPIE, SDAMPP, and RSNA, including election to the presidency of the SEAAPM (2010-2011), SDAMPP (2011), and AAPM (2023).

Dr. Samei’s scientific expertise include x-ray imaging, theoretical imaging models, simulation methods, and experimental techniques in medical image formation, quantification, and perception.  His research aims to bridge the gap between scientific scholarship and clinical practice, in the meaningful realization of translational research, and in clinical processes that are informed by scientific evidence. He has advanced image quality and safety metrics and radiometrics that are clinically relevant and that can be used to design, optimize, and monitor interpretive and quantitative performance of imaging techniques. These have been implemented in advanced imaging performance characterization, procedural optimization, and clinical dose and quality analytics. His most recent research interests have been virtual clinical trial across a broad spectrum of oncologic, pulmonary, cardiac, and vascular diseases, and developing methodological advances that provide smart fusions of principle-informed and AI-based, data-informed approaches to scientific inquiry.

Dr. Samei has mentored over 140 trainees (graduate and postgraduate). He has >1400 scientific publications including >360 referred journal articles, ~600 conference presentations, and 4 books. Citations to his work is reflected in an h-index of 74 and a Weighted Relative Citation Ratio of 613. His laboratory of over 20 researchers has been supported continuously over two decades by 44 extramural grants, culminating in a NIH Program Project grant in 2021 to establish the national Center for Virtual Imaging Trials (CVIT), joining a small number of prominent Biomedical Technology Research Centers across the nation. In 2023, he, along with 3 other PIs, was awarded to lead one of five national Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (Triangle CERSI) by the FDA.

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