Parents' Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment.

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We examine the role that an exogenous increase in household income due to a government transfer unrelated to household characteristics plays in children's long run outcomes. Children in affected households have higher levels of education in their young adulthood and a lower incidence of criminality for minor offenses. Effects differ by initial household poverty status. An additional $4000 per year for the poorest households increases educational attainment by one year at age 21 and reduces having ever committed a minor crime by 22% at ages 16-17. Our evidence suggests that improved parental quality is a likely mechanism for the change.






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Akee, Randall KQ, William E Copeland, Gordon Keeler, Adrian Angold and Elizabeth J Costello (2010). Parents' Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment. Am Econ J Appl Econ, 2(1). pp. 86–115. 10.1257/app.2.1.86 Retrieved from

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William Everett Copeland

Adjunct Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Adrian Christopher Angold

Associate Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Developmental epidemiology seeks to apply developmental and epidemiological principles to the study of psychopathology. Within this overall framework, my main research interests relate to the study of depression, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders and their effects on service use in children and adolescents. Current activities include studies of (1) relationships among pubertal hormonal changes, morphological changes, life strain, and psychopathology; (2) the development of measures of psychopathology and their links with psychiatric nosology (at the levels of symptoms, diagnoses, and disability); (3) parental burden and service use resulting from child and adolescent psychopathology; (4) comorbidity among psychiatric disorders; (5) factors affecting mental health service use; and (7) psychological predictors of risk for cardiovascular disorders in adolescence.


Elizabeth Jane Costello

Professor Emerita in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Developmental epidemiology applies the research methods of findings of developmental science to epidemiology--the study of patterns of disease distribution in time and space. Developmental epidemiology can cover the life span, but my own work concentrates on childhood and adolescence. I study change and continuity in psychiatric disorders, in the context of change and
continuity in the risk factors for those disorders.

An important application of the work of the Developmental Epidemiology Program, of which I am Co-Director, is examining the need for, and use of, mental health services for children. This work sets the study of the mental health care system for children and adolescents within a conceptual framework which permits use of estimate unmet needs as well as identifying appropriate areas for preventive interventions. I am carrying out a longitudinal study based on 4,500 randomly selected children and adolescents living in the Appalachian mountains of western North Carolina. Findings from this study provide important information for federal and local policy makers, while at the same time testing ideas about the development of risk and resilience.

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