On the Road to Global Value Chains: How Industry Dynamics Reshaped Global Value Chains

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This chapter provides a 􀁿rst-person account of four decades of theoretical and empirical work on linking the study of global industries to development theories. The Mexican pharmaceutical industry was the setting for examining the power of multinational corporations (MNCs) to shape national industry outcomes in ways that reinforced Mexico’s strategic dependence on MNCs. In the case of import-substituting and export-oriented development strategies in Latin America and East Asia, an industry perspective showed that countries and regions alternated in strategically useful ways between inward-oriented and outward-oriented approaches. A framework for analyzing global industries per se did not emerge until the introduction of the global commodity chain (GCC) and global value chain (GVC) approaches in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. A focus on global industry dynamics remains relevant to the cutting-edge themes of our times, ranging from the rise of trade protectionism and economic nationalism to the COVID-19 global pandemic.





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Gary Gereffi

Professor Emeritus of Sociology

Gary Gereffi is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global Value Chains Center at Duke University (https://gvcc.duke.edu/).  He has published over a dozen books and numerous articles on globalization, industrial upgrading, and social and economic development, and he is one of the originators of the global value chains framework.  His most recent books are:  Handbook on Global Value Chains (co-edited by Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert), Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. 2019); and Global Value Chains and Development: Redefining the Contours of 21st Century Capitalism (Cambridge University Press, 2018).  Current projects include:  (1) the impact of U.S. protectionism on jobs and regional trade agreements; (2) evaluating how the digital economy and Industry 4.0 are likely to affect international business strategies and industrial upgrading; and (3) shifting regional interdependencies in East Asia and North America, with a focus on China, South Korea and Mexico vis-à-vis the United States.

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