A New Benchmark of Energy Performance for Energy Management in U.S. and Canadian Integrated Steel Plants



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ENERGY STAR® supports businesses and consumers by making it easier to save money and protect the climate through superior energy efficiency. A key ENERGY STAR energy management tool for industry is the plant Energy Performance Indicator (EPI), which provides a bird’s-eye view of a plant’s sector-specific plant-level energy use via a functional relationship between the level of energy use and the level and type of various production activities, material input’s quality, and external factors. This paper describes the development of the first EPI for evaluating the energy performance of integrated steel mills in the U.S. and Canada.








Gale Allen Boyd

Associate Research Professor in the Social Science Research Institute

Gale Boyd is an Associate Research Professor in the Social Science Research Institute & Department of Economics. He was the Director of the Triangle Federal Statistical Research Data Center from 2006-2020.  Prior to joining Duke University, Gale was an economist at Argonne National Laboratory. His career has been primarily in area of industrial energy/environmental economics. 

His recent work includes using the non-public Census micro-data and other non-pubic data from industry and trade associations on energy, environmental, and productivity related issues for industrial energy efficiency and related energy/environmental policy research. His research includes preparing statistical benchmarks of energy performance in manufacturing plants, or Energy Performance Indicators (EPI), is supported by the EPA ENERGY STAR program and is used by industry for energy management and public recognition from ENERGY STAR.  Studies of the implications of management practices and environmental policy on industry energy efficiency and total factor productivity are in progress.

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