Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control.
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Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks versus single-task blocks), but age-related differences in activation during local switching effects (switch trials versus repeat trials, within blocks) have not been investigated. This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine adult age differences in task switching across adjacent trials (i.e., local task switching). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a cued, word categorization task. From interspersed cue-only trials, switch-related processing associated with the cue was estimated separately from the target. Activation associated with task switching, within a distributed frontoparietal network, differed for cue- and target-related processing. The magnitude of event-related activation for task switching was similar for younger adults (n=20; 18-27years) and older adults (n=20; 60-85years), although activation sustained throughout the on-tasks periods exhibited some age-related decline. Critically, the functional connectivity of switch-related regions, during cue processing, was higher for younger adults than for older adults, whereas functional connectivity during target processing was comparable across the age groups. Further, individual differences in cue-related functional connectivity shared a substantial portion of the age-related variability in the efficiency of target categorization response (drift rate). This age-related difference in functional connectivity, however, was independent of white matter integrity within task-relevant regions. These findings highlight the functional connectivity of frontoparietal activation as a potential source of age-related decline in executive control.
Aged, 80 and over
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.249
Publication InfoMadden, David J; Costello, Matthew C; Dennis, Nancy A; Davis, Simon W; Shepler, Anne M; Spaniol, Julia; ... Cabeza, Roberto (2010). Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control. Neuroimage, 52(2). pp. 643-657. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.249. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13477.
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Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
My laboratory investigates the neural correlates of memory and cognition in young and older adults using fMRI. We have three main lines of research: First, we distinguish the neural correlates of various episodic memory processes. For example, we have compared encoding vs. retrieval, item vs. source memory, recall vs. recognition, true vs. false memory, and emotional vs. nonemotional memory. We are particularly interested in the contribution of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (M
Simon Wilton Davis
Assistant Professor in Neurology
My research centers around the use of structural and functional imaging measures to study the shifts in network architecture in the aging brain. I am specifically interested in changes in how changes in structural and functional connectivity associated with aging impact the semantic retrieval of word or fact knowledge. Currently this involves asking why older adults have particular difficulty in certain kinds of semantic retrieval, despite the fact that vocabularies and knowledge stores typic
David Joseph Madden
Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
My research focuses primarily on the cognitive neuroscience of aging: the investigation of age-related changes in perception, attention, and memory, using both behavioral measures and neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The behavioral measures have focused on reaction time, with the goal of distinguishing age-related changes in specific cognitive abilities from mo
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