Peru in the Mining Equipment Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

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This report analyses Peru’s participation in the high quality cotton textile and apparel global value chain. The textile and apparel sector is a key pillar of Peru’s manufacturing sector, while the high quality cotton has been cultivated for centuries in the country. The study uses the GVC framework to analyze Peru’s position and potential for upgrading in the industry. This report is part of a Duke CGGC study commissioned by the World Bank in 2015/16 to support the growth and productivity agenda in Peru with a focus on three important industries for the country: table grapes, mining equipment and pima cotton.






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Karina Fernandez-Stark


Karina is an expert on global value chain analysis, with more than 15 years of experience leading numerous research projects related to economic development and competitiveness around the world. Her consulting is action-oriented, focused on leveraging academic research into tangible sustainable development outcomes and building capacity of policymakers around the world. She has consulted for the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, OECD, UNCTAD, ECLAC, and the African Development Bank amongst others. Karina's areas of expertise cover a wide range of economic sectors including agriculture, manufacturing, mining and services. She is a globally recognized specialist in policy development for trade, competitiveness, skills development, gender and SMEs contributing to more gainful participation of developing countries in the global economy.

Karina authored the highly-cited book “The Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer” and together with Gereffi & Bamber, she recently published the edited volume "China's New Development Strategies: Upgrading from Above and Below in Global Value Chains." She has published widely on industrial upgrading and social and economic development. Her research continuously brings a policy focus, advising governments on different continents. Karina has conducted numerous Global Value Chains workshops in Africa, Asia and the Americas both online and in-person. She designed and developed a GVC manual in Spanish for economic development researchers in Latin America. Karina is Chilean and holds a Bachelor’s degree in Journalism and Political Science and a Master’s degree in International Development Policy from Duke University.


Gary Gereffi

Professor Emeritus of Sociology

Gary Gereffi is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global Value Chains Center at Duke University (  He has published over a dozen books and numerous articles on globalization, industrial upgrading, and social and economic development, and he is one of the originators of the global value chains framework.  His most recent books are:  Handbook on Global Value Chains (co-edited by Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert), Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. 2019); and Global Value Chains and Development: Redefining the Contours of 21st Century Capitalism (Cambridge University Press, 2018).  Current projects include:  (1) the impact of U.S. protectionism on jobs and regional trade agreements; (2) evaluating how the digital economy and Industry 4.0 are likely to affect international business strategies and industrial upgrading; and (3) shifting regional interdependencies in East Asia and North America, with a focus on China, South Korea and Mexico vis-à-vis the United States.

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