Cervical deformity patients with baseline hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis differ in surgical treatment and radiographic outcomes

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Background: Patients with symptomatic cervical deformity (CD) requiring surgical correction often present with hyperkyphosis (HK), although patients with hyperlordotic curves may require surgery as well. Few studies have investigated differences in CD corrective surgery with regard to HK and hyperlordosis (HL). Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate patterns in treatment for CD patients with baseline (BL) HK and HL and understand how extreme curvature of the spine may influence surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods: Operative CD patients with BL and 1-year (1Y) radiographic data were included in the study. Patients were stratified based on BL C2-C7 lordosis (CL) angle: those >1 standard deviation (SD) from the mean (-6.96 ± 21.47°) were hyperlordotic (>14.51°) or hyperkyphotic (<-28.43°) depending on directionality. Patients within 1SD were considered control group. Results: 102 surgical CD patients (61 years, 65% F, 30 kg/m 2) with BL and 1Y radiographic data were included. 20 patients met definitions for HK and 21 patients met definitions for HL. No differences in demographics or disability were noted. HK had higher estimated blood loss (EBL) with anterior approaches than HL but similar EBL with posterior approach. Operative time did not differ between groups. Control, HL, and HK groups differed in BL TS-CL (36.6° vs. 22.5° vs. 60.7°, P < 0.001) and BL-SVA (10.8 vs. 7.0 vs. -47.8 mm, P = 0.001). HL patients had less discectomies, less corpectomies, and similar osteotomy rates to HK. HL had 3x revisions of HK and controls (28.6 vs. 10.0 vs. 9.2%, respectively, P = 0.046). At 1Y, HL patients had higher cSVA and trended higher SVA and SS than HK. In terms of BL-upper cervical alignment, HK patients had higher McGregor's slope (MGS) (16.1° vs. 3.3°, P = 0.002) and C0-C2 Cobb (43.3° vs. 26.9°, P < 0.001), however, postoperative differences in MGS and C0-C2 were not significant. HK drivers of deformity were primarily C (90%), whereas HL had primary CT (38.1%), UT (23.8%), and C (14.3%) drivers. Conclusions: Hyperlodotic patients trended higher revision rates with greater radiographic malalignment at 1-year postoperative, perhaps due to undercorrection compared to kyphotic etiologies.






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Passias, PG, H Alas, N Kummer, P Tretiakov, BG Diebo, R Lafage, CP Ames, B Line, et al. (2022). Cervical deformity patients with baseline hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis differ in surgical treatment and radiographic outcomes. Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine, 13(3). pp. 271–277. 10.4103/jcvjs.jcvjs_66_21 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/28009.

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Peter Passias

Instructor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Christopher Ignatius Shaffrey

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I have more than 25 years of experience treating patients of all ages with spinal disorders. I have had an interest in the management of spinal disorders since starting my medical education. I performed residencies in both orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire range of spinal disorders. My goal has been to find innovative ways to manage the range of spinal conditions, straightforward to complex. I have a focus on managing patients with complex spinal disorders. My patient evaluation and management philosophy is to provide engaged, compassionate care that focuses on providing the simplest and least aggressive treatment option for a particular condition. In many cases, non-operative treatment options exist to improve a patient’s symptoms. I have been actively engaged in clinical research to find the best ways to manage spinal disorders in order to achieve better results with fewer complications.

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