Implementation of the NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Screening Policy: A Survey of Athletic Staff and Student-athletes.


OBJECTIVE:To describe the perspectives and experiences of athletic trainers, coaches, and student-athletes approximately three years post-implementation of the NCAA sickle cell trait (SCT) screening policy. PARTICIPANTS:Two-hundred and eight student-athletes, 32 athletic trainers, and 43 coaches from 10 NCAA Division I (DI) institutions in North Carolina from January to June 2014. METHODS:Two online surveys were used to assess knowledge, perspectives, and experiences. RESULTS:Athletic staff were more supportive than student-athletes of the need for the policy. Noted challenges included variation in implementation and follow-up for SCT-positive athletes, financial costs to institutions and athletes, and timing of the screening. CONCLUSIONS:More education about SCT is needed for student-athletes and athletic staff in order to help make the implementation more successful. All parties need to be in agreement regarding the importance of knowing which student-athletes have SCT and how that information will be utilized.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Baker, Charlotte, Jill Powell, Dominic Le, Melissa S Creary, Lori-Ann Daley, Mary Anne McDonald and Charmaine Dm Royal (2018). Implementation of the NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Screening Policy: A Survey of Athletic Staff and Student-athletes. Journal of the National Medical Association, 110(6). pp. 564–573. 10.1016/j.jnma.2018.03.004 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Charmaine DM Royal

Robert O. Keohane Professor of African & African American Studies

Charmaine Royal is the Robert O. Keohane Professor of African & African American Studies, Biology, Global Health, and Family Medicine & Community Health at Duke University. She directs the Duke Center on Genomics, Race, Identity, Difference and the Duke Center for Truth, Racial Healing & Transformation.

Dr. Royal’s research, scholarship, and teaching focus on ethical, social, scientific, and clinical implications of human genetics and genomics, with an emphasis on issues at the intersection of genetics and race. Her interests and primary areas of work include genetics and genomics in African and African Diaspora populations; sickle cell disease and trait; public and professional perspectives and practices regarding race, ethnicity, and ancestry; genetic ancestry inference; and genotype-environment interplay. A fundamental aim of her work is to dismantle ideologies and systems of racial hierarchy in science, healthcare, and society. She serves on numerous national and international advisory boards and committees for government agencies, professional organizations, research initiatives, not-for-profit entities, and corporations.

Dr. Royal obtained a bachelor’s degree in microbiology, master’s degree in genetic counseling, and doctorate in human genetics from Howard University. She completed postgraduate training in ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) research and bioethics at the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health, and in epidemiology and behavioral medicine at Howard University Cancer Center.

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.