Immune Parameters for Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring in Invasive Mold Infection.


Infections caused by invasive molds, including Aspergillus spp., can be difficult to diagnose and remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, early diagnosis and targeted systemic antifungal treatment remains the most important predictive factor for a successful outcome in immunocompromised individuals with invasive mold infections. Diagnosis remains difficult due to low sensitivities of diagnostic tests including culture and other mycological tests for mold pathogens, particularly in patients on mold-active antifungal prophylaxis. As a result, antifungal treatment is rarely targeted and reliable markers for treatment monitoring and outcome prediction are missing. Thus, there is a need for improved markers to diagnose invasive mold infections, monitor response to treatment, and assist in determining when antifungal therapy should be escalated, switched, or can be stopped. This review focuses on the role of immunologic markers and specifically cytokines in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of invasive mold infections.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Jenks, Jeffrey D, Stephen A Rawlings, Carol Garcia-Vidal, Philipp Koehler, Toine Mercier, Juergen Prattes, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, M Teresa Martin-Gomez, et al. (2019). Immune Parameters for Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring in Invasive Mold Infection. Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4). p. E116. 10.3390/jof5040116 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Jeffrey Daniel Jenks

Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.